[News] The racist worldview of Arthur Balfour
news at freedomarchives.org
Wed Oct 18 10:50:39 EDT 2017
The racist worldview of Arthur Balfour
David Cronin <https://electronicintifada.net/people/david-cronin> - 18
Arthur James Balfour
<https://electronicintifada.net/tags/arthur-james-balfour> will, no
doubt, be praised effusively by supporters of Israel in the coming weeks
for a brief document he signed 100 years ago.
As Britain’s foreign secretary in November 1917, Balfour declared his
backing to the Zionist colonization project. Through his declaration
<http://www.balfourproject.org/the-balfour-declaration/>, Britain became
the imperial sponsor of a Jewish state – euphemistically called a
“Jewish national home” – that would be established in Palestine by
expelling its indigenous people en masse.
An assurance in that document about protecting Palestinian rights proved
worthless. Balfour himself was quite happy to negate that assurance.
In 1919, he argued <http://www.balfourproject.org/a-few-quotes/> that
Zionist aspirations were “of far profounder import than the desires and
prejudices of the 700,000 Arabs who now inhabit that ancient land.”
Rather than being marked “with pride,” as Theresa May
<https://electronicintifada.net/tags/theresa-may>, the current British
prime minister, has promised
the centenary of the Balfour Declaration ought to be a time for sober
reflection. One useful exercise would be to examine Balfour’s wider
record of violence and racism.
From 1887 to 1891, Balfour headed Britain’s administration in Ireland.
On his appointment to that post, Balfour proposed to combine repression
The repression he advocated should be as “stern” – in his words – as
that of Oliver Cromwell, the English leader who invaded Ireland in 1649.
Cromwell’s troops are reviled in Ireland for the massacres
they carried out in the towns of Wexford and Drogheda.
Siding with the gentry against what he called the “excitable peasantry,”
Balfour prioritized repression over reform. When a rent strike was
called in 1887, Balfour authorized the use of heavy-handed tactics
against alleged agitators.
Three people died after police fired
on a political protest in Mitchelstown, County Cork. The incident earned
him the nickname of “Bloody Balfour.”
Blessings of civilization?
Balfour penalized dissent. Thousands were jailed under the Irish Crimes
Act that he introduced.
John Mandeville, a nationalist campaigner, was one of the first to be
imprisoned during Balfour’s stint in Ireland. Mandeville died soon after
his release and a coroner’s inquest attributed his death to
ill-treatment suffered while in detention.
Balfour tried to smear Mandeville by claiming he had taken part in a
“drunken row” before suddenly falling ill. Mandeville, according to some
accounts, was actually a teetotaler.
Balfour was a British and a white supremacist. “All the law and all the
civilization in Ireland is the work of England,” he once said.
He used similar terms while defending the subjugation of other peoples.
In 1893, he spoke in the British parliament of how Cecil Rhodes
<http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-32131829>, an imperial marauder in
Southern Africa, was “extending the blessings of civilization.”
While serving as prime minister from 1902 to 1905, Balfour insisted that
Europeans must enjoy greater privileges than Black natives in South
Africa. “Men are not born equal,” he said in 1904.
Two years later – then in opposition – he said that Black people were
“less intellectually and morally capable” than whites.
There are strong reasons to suspect that Balfour was also anti-Semitic.
In 1905, he pushed legislation aimed at preventing Jews fleeing
persecution in Russia from entering Britain on the grounds they were
One reason why Balfour may have been in favor of establishing a Jewish
state in Palestine was that he disliked having Jews as neighbors. He
once described Zionism as a “serious effort to mitigate the age-old
miseries created for western civilization by the presence in its midst
of a body which is too long regarded as alien and even hostile, but
which it was equally unable to expel or absorb.”
Balfour was often callous. He tried to justify the use of Chinese slave
labor in South Africa’s gold mines and atrocities committed by British
forces in the Sudan. He opposed giving aid to people at risk of famine
in India <https://electronicintifada.net/tags/india>.
Despite his apparent commitment to law and order, Balfour encouraged
illegal behavior when it suited him. He was a staunch supporter of
militant loyalists who insisted that Ireland’s north-eastern counties
should not become independent from Britain.
When the Ulster Volunteer Force managed to smuggle
30,000 rifles from Germany into the north of Ireland, Balfour
effectively approved the 1914 gun-running operation by telling the
British parliament: “I hold now, and I held 30 years ago that if home
rule was forced upon Ulster, Ulster would fight and Ulster would be right.”
It was extraordinary that a former prime minister should voice approval
for subversion. Yet that stance did no harm to Balfour’s political career.
Within a few years, he was back in government as foreign secretary – it
was in that role that he issued his declaration on Palestine.
The effects of that declaration were swift and far-reaching. Through
pressure exerted by Chaim Weizmann
<https://electronicintifada.net/tags/chaim-weizmann> (later Israel’s
first president) and other senior figures in the Zionist movement, it
was enshrined in the League of Nations mandate through which Britain
ruled Palestine between the two world wars.
Herbert Samuel <https://electronicintifada.net/tags/herbert-samuel>,
himself a staunch Zionist, introduced a system of racial and religious
discrimination when he served as Britain’s first high commissioner for
Palestine from 1920 to 1925. Those measures facilitated and financed the
acquisition by European settlers of land on which Palestinians had lived
and farmed for many generations. Mass evictions ensued: more than 8,700
Palestinians were expelled from villages in Marj Ibn Amer, an area in
the Galilee, as they were bought up by Zionist colonizers during the 1920s.
Balfour was unperturbed by the upheaval that he set in motion. Worse, he
denied that any problem existed.
In 1927, he wrote “nothing has occurred” that would cause him to
question the “wisdom” of the declaration he signed a decade earlier.
The remark says much about Balfour’s hubris. He was prepared to trample
on an entire people and to dismiss their grievances as irrelevant.
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