[News] NLG - Presentation to the United Nations Decolonization Committee Hearings on Puerto Rico

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Mon Jul 8 13:14:14 EDT 2013


National Lawyers Guild International Committee

Presentation to the United Nations Decolonization Committee

Hearings on Puerto Rico

June 17, 2013

The National Lawyers Guild was founded in 1937 as an alternative to the 
American Bar Association, which did not admit people of color. The 
oldest and largest public interest/human rights bar organization in the 
United States, with headquarters in New York, it has chapters in every 
state. From its founding, the National Lawyers Guild has maintained an 
internationalist perspective, with international work a critical focus 
for the Guild. Its International Committee has organized delegations to 
many countries throughout the world, and Guild members are involved in 
organizations such as the International Association for Democratic 
Lawyers and the American Association of Jurists. Presently, active 
subcommittees exist for Cuba, the Middle East, Korea, Haiti, Palestine, 
Iran, Puerto Rico, indigenous American peoples, and the Philippines, 
among others. Guild members, including myself, have a long history of 
defending activists in the Puerto Rican independence movement. Our 2013 
annual convention will be held in Puerto Rico, so that our members can 
learn first hand about the colonial situation.

I. Colonial status

The Obama administration, as preceding U.S. administrations, 
acknowledges that the unresolved status of the relationship between the 
U.S. and Puerto Rico continues to be "of overwhelming importance to the 
people of Puerto Rico."^1 <#_edn1> Yet, as its predecessors, it 
continues to be an obstacle to a resolution consistent with 
international law, in spite of this Committee's consistent urging over 
the decades.^2 <#_edn2>

A 2012 election day "plebiscite," not authorized by U.S. Congress, 
referred to by some as a "pseudo-plebiscite,"^3 <#_edn3> and by others 
as "a tortured political process,"^4 <#_edn4> resulted in just another 
poll about the colonial status, just as the previous "plebiscites" held 
in 1967, 1993, and 1998 --- in none of which did statehood prevail.^5 
<#_edn5> Convened during a statehood administration, it was the first of 
all the plebiscites to ask two questions. First, it asked, "Are you 
satisfied with the current territorial status?"^6 <#_edn6> to which 54% 
of the voters responded no. Second, voters selected from three status 
options, the definitions of which were hotly contested: statehood, 
"sovereign free associated state," and independence. The results 
demonstrated that 51% of the voters said they wanted a change the status 
quo colonial condition. The vote was, respectively, 61.5%, 33.3%, and 
5.5%. However, 466,337 voters intentionally left the second question 
blank, representing the commonwealth party's formal, organized protest 
over the failure to include their preferred definition of free 
associated state.^7 <#_edn7> Those blank votes, added to the sovereign 
free associated state votes, added up to 51% of the vote, leaving 
statehood with 45.1% of the total vote.^8 <#_edn8> The statehood party's 
claimed victory rang hollow,^9 <#_edn9> and the U.S. president stated 
the results were "unclear."^10 <#_edn10> However, there is no doubt that 
the majority of Puerto Ricans expressed a desire to change the status 
quo colonial condition.

President Obama recently announced that the U.S.budget includes $2.5 
million for yet another "plebiscite,"^11 <#_edn11> and the 
pro-statehood, non-voting representative to U.S. Congress has proposed a 
bill in that forum aimed at achieving statehood --- a bill criticized by 
many, including members of U.S. Congress of Puerto Rican descent.^12 
<#_edn12>

The colonial status must be resolved according to international law, 
allowing the Puerto Rican people to exercise its inalienable right to 
self-determination, without intervention by the U.S., as this Committee 
has repeatedly resolved for the past thirty years.

II. Federal intervention

Not surprisingly, in a colony, the presence of the colonial power looms 
large in the daily lives of Puerto Ricans and in the administration of 
the colony. A U.S. agent from the Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI] 
administers the police department,^13 <#_edn13> just as former FBI 
agents have done for most of the past two decades. The U.S. Department 
of Justice continues its legal intervention with the corrupt, violent 
and mismanaged Puerto Rico Police Department,^14 <#_edn14> after having 
issued a report finding, /inter alia/, that police committed acts of 
discrimination, used excessive and unwarranted deadly force, conducted 
unlawful searches and seizures, and regularly used tactics to intimidate 
demonstrators rather than to address legitimate threats to public 
safety.^15 <#_edn15>

As if the presence of multiple U.S. agencies were not sufficient 
penetration of Puerto Rican society, since 2005 the FBI has operated 
what it calls a "citizens academy," to recruit and train Puerto Rican 
citizens to become FBI allies and promoters, and "to convert them into 
voluntary eyes and ears" for the repressive agency, graduating 20 in 
2013.^16 <#_edn16>

News of drug raids by federal agents is constant^17 <#_edn17> --- yet 
the federal agencies charged with controlling the borders of the country 
(Puerto Rico has no control over its own borders) have not stemmed the 
flood of incoming drugs, despite repeated requests from the colonial 
administration to do so.^18 <#_edn18> Nor have the federal agencies 
managed to control the sale of drugs or guns, or the violence wreaked on 
Puerto Rican society by the drug wars, in spite of pleas by local police 
and elected officials,^19 <#_edn19> and in spite of constant arrests^20 
<#_edn20> --- often with a lack of regard for the safety of the 
population^21 <#_edn21> --- and a burgeoning prison population. Federal 
agencies have, however, managed to budget over $100 million for a new 
FBI complex,^22 <#_edn22>


all the while discriminating against Puerto Ricans in their agencies.^23 
<#_edn23>

U.S. intervention into the daily lives of the Puerto Rican people also 
continues to be a constant, with unsought and often unwelcome 
investigations by federal agencies of a range of issues from public 
corruption^24 <#_edn24> to bank transactions,^25 <#_edn25> to the state 
university^26 <#_edn26> and the vanishing coqui.^27 <#_edn27>

U.S. repression of the independence movement continues its long and 
sordid history. In one manifestation of this intervention since 911, 
U.S. agencies have been detaining, interrogating and harassing 
independentistas in international airports, disrupting their travel.^28 
<#_edn28>

Consistent with its history of cultivating economic dependence,^29 
<#_edn29> U.S. intevention takes the form of financing a variety of 
projects, from schools to roads^30 <#_edn30> to re-employment,^31 
<#_edn31> to the environment,^32 <#_edn32> with local criticism falling 
on deaf ears.^33 <#_edn33> News of federal budget cuts was received as a 
threat to an already debilitated economy.^34 <#_edn34>

Not even elections,^35 <#_edn35> a traditional measure of "democracy," 
and not even Puerto Rican national patrimony are safe from U.S. 
intervention, with the U.S. recently claiming two sites as U.S. national 
historic landmarks, including Old San Juan.^36 <#_edn36> 
http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/federal-government-adds-2-pr-sites-to-list-of-national-historic-landmarks-82106.html 
("National historic landmarks are nationally significant historic places 
that possess exceptional value or quality in illustrating or 
interpreting the heritage of the United States." According to the U.S. 
Secretary of the Interior, "Today's designations include significant 
sites that help tell the story of America and the contributions that all 
people from all walks of life have made as we strive for a more perfect 
union.").

III. Other Challenges to Civil/Human Rights

The previous colonial administration was trounced in a David versus 
Goliath battle over a referendum aiming to amend the constitution to do 
away with the right to bail.^37 <#_edn37> The pro-statehood party's 
generous funding could not hold a candle to grassroots successful --- 
and completely unfunded --- organizing efforts to defeat the proposed 
amendment.^38 <#_edn38>

Rights for the LBGTQ community faced significant controversy. The long 
struggle for equality resulted in a partial victory when activists 
recently won legislation outlawing employment discrimination based on 
gender or sexual orientation.^39 <#_edn39> At the same time, the 
struggle suffered a setback when the Puerto Rico Supreme Court ruled 
that the Puerto Rico Adoption Act's prohibition on same-sex couple 
adoption is not unconstitutional, finding that sexual orientation is not 
a suspect class and does not warrant protection, a ruling which may be 
appealed.^40 <#_edn40>

IV. Economy

The ongoing colonial status of Puerto Rico is crippling its economy, 
affecting its social fabric, and driving its population from the island. 
It is no surprise that talented, well-educated Puerto Ricans are 
emigrating in droves to the United States.^41 <#_edn41> More than half 
the population now resides in the United States.^42 <#_edn42> "It's the 
economy, stupid," as Bill Clinton so astutely declared in his successful 
1992 campaign for U.S. president.^43 <#_edn43> The poverty level is at 
an alarming 45%,^44 <#_edn44> college graduates can't find jobs^45 
<#_edn45> --- while the school dropout/push-out rate is 40%,^46 
<#_edn46> bankruptcies are on the rise,^47 <#_edn47> teachers protest 
cuts in retirement benefits and an increase employee contributions 
proposed to help save the public pension system,^48 <#_edn48> and the 
economy continues to decline into the red.^49 <#_edn49> The chief of the 
country's economic think tank, the Center for the New Economy, expressed 
that he "ha[s] never been so worried about the economy of Puerto 
Rico."^50 <#_edn50>

V. Death penalty

Although the Puerto Rican constitution --- approved by U.S. Congress --- 
prohibits the death penalty in Puerto Rico, consistent with its long 
term ban prior to the constitution, and no one has been executed in 
Puerto Rico since 1927,^51 <#_edn51> it is one of the jurisdictions with 
the highest number of cases certified by the U.S. Department of Justice 
for the death penalty.^52 <#_edn52> In each of the six trials in which 
the U.S. has sought the death penalty, Puerto Rican juries have refused 
to impose that sentence,^53 <#_edn53> while civic and religious groups 
consistently maintained vigils outside the courthouse.^54 <#_edn54>

The current governor and the resident commissioner have publicly 
expressed opposition to the death penalty,^55 <#_edn55> and the governor 
has asked the U.S. Attorney General not to certify additional cases for 
the U.S. death penalty.^56 <#_edn56> Even the former chief judge of the 
federal court called the penalty "a waste of time" and "a crazy, crazy, 
crazy way to deal with these cases."^57 <#_edn57>

An editorial in the main daily newspaper charged that the U.S. Attorney 
General must recognize that a united people have morally summoned him to 
declare a moratorium on the death penalty in Puerto Rico, as a step in 
the transition to the total elimination of what it called "that cruel 
type of sentence."^58 <#_edn58> Yet, the colonial relationship leaves 
the people of Puerto Rico powerless even to exercise their own 
constitution prohibiting this barbaric punishment in their own land.

VI. Environment

The people of Puerto Rico, led by a Puerto Rican environmental justice 
group Casa Pueblo,^59 <#_edn59> waged a long and successful battle to 
stop the U.S. government and the previous colonial administration from 
constructing a 90-mile long costly and corrupt gas pipeline project 
called "the Green Way" by the government, but called "the Pipeline of 
Death" by the people.^60 <#_edn60> A Puerto Rican member of U.S. 
Congress active in the fight to stop the pipeline declared:

The Puerto Rican people resisted the construction of the massive 
pipeline because it was never needed, could never become fully 
functional, and risked ruining the precious natural beauty of Puerto 
Rico while driving people from their land. All of the evidence indicated 
a tremendous risk to endangered species, fresh water, and the island's 
delicate terrain and a huge risk to the people of Puerto Rico from 
spills, explosions, or other disasters.^61 <#_edn61>

Resistance to the pipeline is but one example of the multitude of 
struggles being waged to protect Puerto Rico's environment and 
agriculture. A few examples include a coalition of Arecibo residents 
organizing to halt an incinerator which could pose serious air-quality 
and other dangerous environmental impacts, but the U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency nevertheless granted a permit for the plant to 
proceed.^62 <#_edn62> The Agricultural Rescue Front organized to protect 
some of the richest farmland in the country from encroachment by 
industrial wind turbines in Santa Isabel.^63 <#_edn63> After years of 
struggle to protect the Northeast Ecological Corridor, organized 
citizens finally achieved a law protecting the nature reserve.^64 
<#_edn64> Citizen groups have sued the U.S. National Marine Fisheries 
Service, seeking a limitation on fishing plant-eating fish, which are 
beneficial to maintaining a healthy reef by eating the algae which can 
kill the reefs,^65 <#_edn65> which in Puerto Rico are in sharp 
decline.^66 <#_edn66> The effects of the colonial presence of the U.S. 
are clearly far-reaching and widely resisted.

VII. Vieques

This year marked the tenth anniversary of the closing of the former 
live-missile and bombing range owned and operated by the U.S. Navy, a 
cessation won by decades of struggle and a massive campaign of civil 
disobedience. The U.S. left a shameful legacy of death and destruction, 
including use of the most toxic and lethal substances, which it has 
failed to responsibly address, leaving many promises unkept.^67 
<#_edn67> One of the many editorials in Puerto Rico's main daily 
newspaper declared, "in the ten years since the Navy's departure, there 
has been no remediation. Thus, as an issue of human, social and economic 
rights of the people of Vieques, the Navy must comply with 
decontamination."^68 <#_edn68>

The people of Vieques and their supporters continue to struggle for: 1) 
environmental clean up and decontamination -- thousands of unexploded 
bombs and other military artifacts still litter beaches, mangrove 
lagoons and the coral reefs/ocean floor around the eastern portion of 
the island;^69 <#_edn69> 2) return of ex-Navy lands to the Puerto Rican 
people (most of the land was transferred to the jurisdiction of U.S. 
Interior Department's Fish and Wildlife Service); 3) sustainable 
development;^70 <#_edn70> and 4) attention to Vieques' health crisis 
(the island suffers 30% more cancer than the rest of Puerto Rico, 
exaggerated levels of diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular ills and 
other catastrophic diseases).^71 <#_edn71>

VIII. Political prisoners

We are honored to make this year's presentation in the presence of 
Clarisa López Ramos, daughter of Puerto Rican political prisoner Oscar 
López Rivera, who on May 29 marked 32 years of imprisonment --- an 
historic moment around which the entire nation of Puerto Rico united in 
unprecedented fashion and clamored for the release of the man who has 
served more time in prison for the cause of the independence of Puerto 
Rico than any other independentista in history.^72 <#_edn72> In a 
24-hour demonstration of their indignation at the U.S. over this 
disproportionate punishment, and their compassion and solidarity with a 
70 year old man they warmly embrace as their brother, Puerto Ricans from 
every sector of society and of every political persuasion entered 
symbolic prison cells in the plazas of five cities throughout the 
island, taking turns serving as "prisoners" for 24 hours.^73 <#_edn73> 
The news media saturated the island with coverage: the main daily 
newspaper issued its second editorial in a matter of months favoring his 
release,^74 <#_edn74> as did the main radio station; television and 
radio stations broadcast from the plazas. The governor and many stars of 
stage and screen announced their support, including world famous Puerto 
Rican entertainers Ricky Martin^75 <#_edn75> and René Perez and 
Residente of Calle 13;^76 <#_edn76> interfaith religious services prayed 
for his release as chapel bells rang 32 times; a former governor,^77 
<#_edn77> the president of the senate^78 <#_edn78> and the bar 
association,^79 <#_edn79> and the mayors of ten cities^80 <#_edn80> 
entered the symbolic cells as "prisoners," as did businessmen and 
journalists, clergy,^81 <#_edn81> athletes,^82 <#_edn82> artists^83 
<#_edn83> and academics. Whole families and entire government offices 
entered the "cells."^84 <#_edn84> The following day, the Senate of 
Puerto Rico passed a resolution calling for his release.^85 <#_edn85>

The 32^nd anniversary events were only the culmination of a series of 
events to highlight the injustice of his continuing imprisonment. 
Throughout the year since this Committee's last hearing on Puerto Rico, 
international support has continued to grow, with expressions emanating 
from Nobel Laureates,^86 <#_edn86> churches and religious 
organizations,^87 <#_edn87> social justice organizations,^88 <#_edn88> etc.

Support in Puerto Rico has blossomed to an unprecedented level, with 
expressions from every sector of society, from elected officials^89 
<#_edn89> to professional organizations^90 <#_edn90> and 
cooperatives,^91 <#_edn91> to veterans^92 <#_edn92> and beauty 
queens.^93 <#_edn93>

Last summer, environmental and human rights activist Tito Kayak 
dedicated to López Rivera a challenging month long kayak trip 
fromVenezuela to Puerto Rico, stopping throughout the Antilles to 
advocate for his release.^94 <#_edn94> December of 2012 saw the 
convening of an International Human Rights Summit dedicated to López 
Rivera's release, with the participation of distinguished human rights 
activists from New York to Argentina to Palestine.^95 <#_edn95> In 
February of this year, one of the nation's largest outdoor music 
festivals was dedicated to him, with a concert by the nation's finest 
musicians and composers.^96 <#_edn96> Art exhibits,^97 <#_edn97> 
murals,^98 <#_edn98> books, dedication of public events --- such as when 
the mayor of San Juan dedicated her electoral victory to him^99 
<#_edn99> --- abound.

Meanwhile, jailers at the Federal Correctional Institution at Terre 
Haute, Indiana, rather than leaving him alone to serve his sentence in 
peace, have only increased the level of harassment and vigilance of this 
model prisoner. Implementing heightened censorship, for the first time 
in 32 years they banned him from sending messages to public events, 
unless they pre-approve the messages. Until the very recent inquiry of a 
U.S. elected official, they spurned all media requests to interview him, 
claiming spuriously that the interviews "could jeopardize security and 
disrupt the orderly running of the institution." After the inquiry, they 
continue to spurn all requests for in-person interviews, stating they 
will cede a telephone interview, though one has yet to take place.

In a recent meeting with the U.S. Attorney General, Puerto Rico's 
governor and attorney general advocated for López Rivera's release.^100 
<#_edn100> They expressed confidence that there is positive movement 
toward his release,^101 <#_edn101> but he remains behind bars, entering 
his 33^rd year of imprisonment.

The resolution recently passed by the Senate of Puerto Rico called López 
Rivera "the political prisoner who is still serving the longest prison 
sentence, surpassing Nobel Peace Prize Laureate and former president of 
South Africa Nelson Mandela."^102 <#_edn102> As the world sends get well 
wishes to Nelson Mandela, held by the apartheid regime in South Africa 
for a shockingly long 27 years in prison, it is a propitious moment for 
this august body to once again urge the president of the U.S. to release 
Oscar López Rivera, after an appalling 32 years in U.S. prisons for 
having fought for his people's inalienable right to independence and 
self-determination.

IX. Conclusion

The National Lawyers Guild International Committee, incorporating the 
requests sought by the majority of the other presenters before this 
Honorable Committee, urges the adoption of a resolution calling for the 
General Assembly to consider the case of Puerto Rico; and calling on the 
government of the United States to:

* immediately cease the brutality, criminalization and harassment of, 
and attacks on, the Puerto Rican Independence Movement and all those who 
exercise their fundamental rights to expression and association;

* immediately release Puerto Rican political prisoners Oscar López 
Rivera, who has served more than 32 years in U.S. custody, and Norberto 
González Claudio;

* identify and hold criminally liable all those responsible for the 
assassination of Filiberto Ojeda Ríos (2005), Santiago Mari Pesquera 
(1976), Carlos Muñiz Varela (1979), and other militants of the Puerto 
Rican independence movement;

* withdraw the FBI, the U.S. court, and all other U.S. police, 
repressive and military forces and agencies from Puerto Rico;

* withdraw from Vieques, formally return legal property of the land to 
the people of Vieques, cease detonating unexploded ordnance, completely 
clean up the pollution left by the U.S. Navy's 60 year occupation 
through the use of proven, environmentally friendly clean-up methods, 
foster and support a sustainable economy, and compensate the people of 
Vieques for the damage to their health done to them by the same;

* cease and desist from the application of the death penalty in Puerto Rico;

* formally commit to negotiate in good faith with the people of Puerto 
Rico a solution to the colonial condition; and recognize the proposals 
that emanate from a Constitutional Assembly, initiated by the people of 
Puerto Rico, such as that called for by the Puerto Rico Bar Association, 
as the true expression of the aspirations of the people of Puerto Rico, 
and respond to them accordingly.

Dated: June 17, 2013 Respectfully submitted,

Jan Susler

People's Law Office

1180 N. Milwaukee

Chicago, IL 60642

773/235-0070

jsusler at gmail.com <mailto:jsusler at aol.com>

On behalf of the National Lawyers Guild

International Committee

http://www.nlginternational.org/

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1. <#_ednref1>/Report by the President's Task Force on Puerto Rico's 
Status/, March, 2011, Executive Summary at 3, 
http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/uploads/Puerto_Rico_Task_Force_ExecSummary.pdf.

2. <#_ednref2>"Puerto Rican Lawyer speaks at the UN Decolonisation 
Committee seminar," /MercoPress/, May 29, 2013,

http://en.mercopress.com/2013/05/29/puerto-rican-lawyer-speaks-at-the-un-decolonisation-committee-seminar; 
"Estados Unidos no permite la libre determinación de Puerto Rico: 
Abogada puertorriqueña habla en seminario del Comité de Descolonización 
de la ONU," /El Nuevo Día/, May 29, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/estadosunidosnopermitelalibredeterminaciondepuertorico-1521049.html#.UaZrrEQ3SoM.facebook.

3.Rafael Anglada L <#_ednref3>ópez and Olga I. Sanabria Dávila, "El 
seudo plebiscito -- Un engaño sobre Puerto Rico," /Red Betances/, 
November 2, 2012,

http://www.redbetances.com/component/content/article/51-en-portada/1319-rafael-anglada-lopez-y-olga-i-sanabria-davila.html.

4.Ed Morales, <#_ednref4>"The Puerto Rico Plebiscite That Wasn't," /ABC 
News/, November 8, 2012,

http://abcnews.go.com/ABC_Univision/Opinion/puerto-rico-status-plebiscite/story?id=17674719&singlePage=true#.UYMtJ6I2xbY. 


5.Ed Morales, <#_ednref5>"The Puerto Rico Plebiscite That Wasn't," /ABC 
News/, November 8, 2012,

http://abcnews.go.com/ABC_Univision/Opinion/puerto-rico-status-plebiscite/story?id=17674719&singlePage=true#.UYMtJ6I2xbY.

6. <#_ednref6>Danica Coto, Associated Press, "PR seeks to solve status 
issue," /Caribbean Business/, mailto:cb.pr at gmail.comNovember 4, 2012, 
http://caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/pr-seeks-to-solve-status-issue-78257.html. 


7. <#_ednref7>Danica Coto, "Puerto Rico votes to change relationship 
with US; majority wants statehood," /MSNBC/, November 8, 2012, 
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/49737548/#.UJyTReRfDN9; see also, 
http://prfaa.pr.gov/espanol/noticias/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Resolucion-Concurrente-24.pdf.

8.Ed Morales, <#_ednref8>"The Puerto Rico Plebiscite That Wasn't," /ABC 
News/, November 8, 2012,

http://abcnews.go.com/ABC_Univision/Opinion/puerto-rico-status-plebiscite/story?id=17674719&singlePage=true#.UYMtJ6I2xbY. 


9. <#_ednref9>Jack Kenny, "Puerto Rico Vote for Statehood Questioned,"/ 
New American/, November 8, 2012, 
http://www.thenewamerican.com/usnews/politics/item/13568-puerto-rico-vote-for-statehood-questioned. 


10.Jos <#_ednref10>é A. Delgado, "Casa Blanca dice que no hubo un 
mandato a favor de la estadidad: Portavoz hace nuevos comentarios sobre 
los resultados del plebiscito de status," /El Nuevo Día/, December 3, 2012,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/casablancadicequenohubounmandatoafavordelaestadidad-1400069.html. 


11.CB Online Staff, <#_ednref11>"PR status plebiscite in Obama budget," 
/Caribbean Business/, April 10, 2013, 
http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/pr-status-plebiscite-in-obama-budget-83109.html; 
Danica Coto, Associated Press, "US Seeks to Fund New Puerto Rico Status 
Plebiscite," /ABC News/, April 11, 2013,

http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/us-seeks-fund-puerto-rico-status-plebiscite-18927565#.UWgDDKLpVbY; 
"Obama destinará más de $2 millones para plebiscito en la Isla," 
/Metro/, April 10, 2013,

http://www.metro.pr/mundo/obama-destinara-mas-de-2-millones-para-plebiscito-en-la-isla/pGXmdj!wBO01fXtIT0I/ 


12. <#_ednref12>"Bill in U.S. Congress seeks vote on Puerto Rican 
statehood," /Reuters/, May 15, 2013,

http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/05/15/us-usa-puertorico-status-idUSBRE94E11320130515; 
See, e.g., Congresswoman Nydia Velázquez on Puerto Rico Status 
Legislation, May 15, 2013, ("Rep. Nydia M. Velázquez (D-NY) made the 
following statement regarding Puerto Rico status legislation introduced 
in the House today: 'If we are to fairly resolve the issue of Puerto 
Rico's status, we must find a framework for true self-determination. The 
'Puerto Rico Status Resolution Act' being introduced today fails that 
test in every aspect: it denies Puerto Ricans a true vehicle for 
self-determination and fabricates a superficial majority in favor of 
statehood.'"); CB Online Staff, "Gutiérrez: Status bill does nothing for 
PR," /Caribbean Business/, May 15, 2013,

http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/gutierrez-status-bill-does-nothing-for-pr-84597.html.

13. <#_ednref13>Eugenio Hopgood Dávila, "Sí" a que Pesquera se quede: El 
superintendente, entretanto, guarda silencio sobre sus planes," /El 
Nuevo Día/, March 2, 2013, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/siaquepesquerasequede-1460174.html.

14. <#_ednref14>"Departamento de Justicia Federal demanda a la Policía 
de Puerto Rico: La acción se basa en una investigación comenzada en 
2008, que reveló que la Uniformada ha violado los derechos civiles a la 
ciudadanía," /El Nuevo Día/, December 21, 2012,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/departamentodejusticiafederaldemandaalapoliciadepuertorico-1413140.html; 
CB Online Staff, "PR, feds negotiate costly police reform," /Caribbean 
Business/, May 21, 2013, 
http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/pr-feds-negotiate-costly-police-reform-84759.html.The 
U.S. DOJ intervention is ironic, given that former agents of its own FBI 
have administered the Puerto Rico Police Department for decades, and 
that Puerto Rico police receive training from the U.S.

15.Bel <#_ednref15>én Fernández, "Puerto Rico's outlaw police force: 
Police in the US territory have been accused of civil rights abuses and 
overzealous crackdowns on peaceful protests," /Aljazeera/, June 26, 2012,

http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2012/06/2012620112025706894.html.

16.Iveliss <#_ednref16>e Rivera Quiñones, "FBI gradúa a civiles en 
academia especial: Unos 20 ciudadanos conocieron el funcionamiento de 
esta agencia," /El Nuevo Día/, March 10, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/fbigraduaacivilesenacademiaespecial-1465608.html.

17.See, e.g., Alex Figueroa Cancel, <#_ednref17>"Desarticulan ganga de 
narcos de lujo: Federales diligencian 21 órdenes de arresto por cargos 
de narcotráfico y lavado de dinero,"/ El Nuevo Día/, September 26, 2012,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/desarticulangangadenarcosdelujo-1351338.html; 
"Megaoperativo federal en Río Piedras," /NotiCel/, February 28, 2013, 
http://www.noticel.com/noticia/138011/megaoperativo-federal-en-rio-piedras.html.

18. <#_ednref18>"Fortuño exige acción a los federales para combatir 
narcotráfico," /Primera Hora/, January 13, 2012,

http://www.primerahora.com/fortunoexigeaccionalosfederalesparacombatirnarcotrafico-602227.html 
("'The federal security agencies in Puerto Rico lack the necessary 
resources to combat the illegal entry of drugs and to guarantee the 
security of the Puerto Rican people. This is a matter of national 
security. Puerto Rico deserves to be treated the same as the 50 states, 
and the disproportionate amount of resources is what is generating 
repercussions in the increase of drug trafficking in the region. The 
level of violence caused by drug trafficking that exists today is 
without precedent, and is directly tied to the Island's position as the 
center of the unprotected border of the Caribbean,' wrote the Governor 
in one of his letters. The Chief Executive pointed out that given the 
disproportionate levels of violent crime existing in Puerto Rico, 
compared with other other states on the border with Mexico, there is 
evidence that federal law enforcement agencies on the Island need to be 
strengthened."); José A. Delgado, "Escala en Washington el reclamo de 
seguridad: Pierluisi se reúne con Seguridad Interna," El Nuevo Día, 
January 18, 2012,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/escalaenwashingtonelreclamo-1168032.html; 
InterNews Service, "Homeland Security undersecretary met with 
Pierluisi," /Puerto Rico Daily Sun/, January 18, 2012,

http://www.prdailysun.com/news/Homeland-Security-undersecretary-met-with-Pierluisi.

19. <#_ednref19>"Pesquera: Estados Unidos está "jodido" si no ayuda a PR 
con la criminalidad," NotiCel, March 28, 2013,

http://www.noticel.com/noticia/139468/pesquera-estados-unidos-esta-jodido-si-no-ayuda-a-pr-con-la-criminalidad.html; 
"Reclaman más recursos contra el narcotráfico en Puerto Rico: Comité del 
Senado acoge iniciativa del comisionado Pierluisi, /El Nuevo Día/, March 
12, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/reclamanmasrecursoscontraelnarcotraficoenpuertorico-1467842.html; 
Gerardo Cordero, "Fortuño quiere más agentes federales en Puerto Rico: 
La aspiración máxima del gobernador sería lograr lo que han denominado 
iniciativa de la frontera del Caribe," /El Nuevo Día/, September 19, 
2012, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/fortunoquieremasagentesfederalesenpuertorico-1347505.html. 


20. <#_ednref20>See, e.g., "Desarticulan narcogangas más de 200 
federales: Intervienen en cinco residenciales de Arecibo, /El Nuevo 
Día/, March 21, 2013, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/desarticulannarcogangasmasde200federales-1474512.html.

21.Yaritza Santiago, <#_ednref21>"Alarman los métodos del gobierno 
federal: Operativos en sitios públicos ponen en riesgo vidas inocentes," 
/El Nuevo Día/, July 29, 2012,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/alarmanlosmetodosdelgobiernofederal-1310503.html 
(federal law enforcement pattern of opening fire in busy shopping malls, 
endangering the surrounding public).

22.CB Online Staff, <#_ednref22>"Obama budget has $95M for FBI facility 
in PR," /Caribbean Business/, April 10, 2013,

http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/obama-budget-has-$95m-for-fbi-facility-in-pr-83141.html 
(estimated total cost of the project: $106.6 million).

23.See, e.g., Oscar J <#_ednref23>. Serrano, "DEA discrimina contra 
agentes boricuas," /Noticel/, February 6, 2012,

http://www.noticel.com/noticia/117743/dea-discrimina-contra-agentes-boricuas.html 
(ten Puerto Rican agents employed by the U.S. Drug Enforcement 
Administration sued that agency for systematic discrimination, alleging 
that they receive lower salaries than their U.S. counterparts, and that 
they are used as "cannon fodder" during investigations, while their U.S. 
counterparts are not exposed to danger). See also, Alex Figueroa Cancel, 
"Denuncian discrimen contra veteranos puertorriqueños: Alegan en foro 
que no reciben el mismo trato que en EE.UU.," /El Nuevo Día/, September 
11, 2012,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/denunciandiscrimencontraveteranospuertorriquenos-1341378.html.

24.See, e.g., Alex Figueroa Cancel, <#_ednref24>"FBI investiga casos de 
corrupción pública: Aseguran que será prioridad," /El Nuevo Día/, 
February 11, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/fbiinvestigacasosdecorrupcionpublica-1446068.html; 
Limarys Suárez Torres, "FBI investiga a alguaciles federales y policías 
locales en Puerto Rico: Por la presunta violación de derechos civiles, 
/El Nuevo Día/, December 29, 2012,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/fbiinvestigaaalguacilesfederalesypoliciaslocalesenpuertorico-1416899.html.

25.Joanisabel Gonz <#_ednref25>ález, "Pesquisa federal al Banco 
Gubernamental de Fomento: El regulador federal realiza pesquisa por 
transacciones de Retiro y Carreteras," /El Nuevo Día/, May 3, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/pesquisafederalalbancogubernamentaldefomento-1503074.html; 
Alex Figueroa Cancel, "Operativo federal contra organización dedicada al 
fraude bancario: Diligencian 42 órdenes de arresto en nueve municipios y 
seis estados," /El Nuevo Día/, May 24, 2013, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/operativofederalporfraudebancario-1518175.html.

26. <#_ednref26>Antonio R. Gómez, "Federales ampliaron pesquisa tras 
intervención en la UPR: La orden que tramitaron ayer oficiales del 
gobierno federal representa una ampliación y profundización de la 
pesquisa," /El Nuevo Día/, April 27, 2013, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/federalesampliaronpesquisatrasintervencionenlaupr-1499608.html.

27. <#_ednref27>Federales protegen coquí a punto de desaparecer: El 
coquí llanero es declarado en peligro de extinción," /El Nuevo Día/, 
October 4, 2012, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/federalesprotegencoquiapuntodedesaparecer-1356894.html.

28.See, e.g., <#_ednref28>"Hostigamiento y persecución a 
independentistas puertorriqueños que viajan a países latinoamericanos," 
Fundación Filiberto Ojeda Ríos, April 14, 2010, 
http://www.cubadebate.cu/noticias/2010/04/14/persecucion-contra-independentistas-puerto-rico/;

José A. Delgado, "Soberanista pasa malrato en Inmigración: Manuel Rivera 
relata que lo interrogan sobre reuniones de política en España," /El 
Nuevo Día/, October 23, 2010,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/soberanistapasamalratoeninmigracion-803681.html; 
CyberNews, "Impiden salida del país a líder nacionalista," /Noticel/, 
June 6, 2013,

http://noticel.com/noticia/141387/impiden-salida-del-pais-a-lider-nacionalista.html.

29. <#_ednref29>José A. Delgado, "Más pobres y más PAN en la Isla: 
Llegan a $2,056 millones los fondos del PAN, $400 millones más que los 
del 2008," El Nuevo Día, October 28, 2012, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/maspobresymaspanenlaisla-1372815.html.

30.Jos <#_ednref30>é A. Delgado, "Inyectan millones de dólares para 
mejoras a carreteras y puentes en Puerto Rico: Los fondos son parte de 
$473 millones que nunca fueron entregados a 49 estados, Washington D.C. 
y Puerto Rico," /El Nuevo Día/, August 17, 2012,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/inyectanmillonesdedolaresparamejorasacarreterasypuentesenpuertorico-1324796.html; 
CB Online Staff, "$3.5M in federal funds for PR roads," /Caribbean 
Business/, February 16, 2013, 
http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/$3.5m-in-federal-funds-for-pr-roads-81217.html; 
CB Online Staff, "$26.8M for VA Hospital parking lot," /Caribbean 
Business/, October 8, 2012,

http://caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/$26.8m-for-va-hospital-parking-lot-77217.html.

31. <#_ednref31>"US Labor Dep't grants funds for re-employment," /Puerto 
Rico Daily Sun/, May 8, 2012, 
http://www.prdailysun.com/news/US-Labor-Dept-grants-funds-for-re-employment.

32. <#_ednref32>CB Online Staff, "PR gets $249K to protect wetlands," 
/Caribbean Business/, February 11, 2013, 
http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/pr-gets-$249k-to-protect-wetlands-81015.html; 
José A. Delgado, "EPA asigna fondos para aguas limpias: Distribuye $46 
millones a oficinas en Puerto Rico, /El Nuevo Día/, October 20, 2012, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/epaasignafondosparaaguaslimpias-1367123.html.

33. <#_ednref33>See, e.g., Antonio R. Gómez, "Alega una "falta de 
cortesía": Perelló truena contra la FAA, /El Nuevo Día/, February 27, 
2013, http://www.elnuevodia.com/alegaunafaltadecortesia-1457308.html.

34.Editorial, <#_ednref34>"Previsiones Ante Recorte Federal," /El Nuevo 
Día/, March 4, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/editorial-previsionesanterecortefederal-1461028.html 
(An editorial in Puerto Rico's main daily newspaper warned "Without any 
agreement in the U.S. capital, where the Island has no decisive power, a 
drastic package of budget cuts has begun, known as the 'sequester,'" 
which will impose an austerity program affecting essential services in 
Puerto Rico funded by the U.S. in the areas of education, defense, 
public health, environmental, and violence against women. "More than 300 
university students could lose financial aid funding, more than 2,300 
might be left without access to work study programs, some 2,400 Head 
Start children may have no classes, some 70 educators could lose their 
jobs, and some 300 women victims of domestic violence could lose vital 
survival servies, among others.").

35.Carlos Gallis <#_ednref35>á, "Federalización de las elecciones," 
/Claridad/, October 23, 2012,

http://www.claridadpuertorico.com/content.html?news=95A67941914FA440A47E152E762F2DD9.

36.CB Online Staff, <#_ednref36>"Federal government adds 2 PR sites to 
list of national historic landmarks," /Caribbean Business/, March 11, 2013,

37. <#_ednref37>Yaritza Santiago Caraballo, "Batalla de David contra 
Goliat: El PNP invirtió miles en el "Sí", pero los del "No" apenas 
gastaron," /El Nuevo Día/, August 18, 2012, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/batalladedavidcontragoliat-1324968.html.

38.Israel Rodr <#_ednref38>íguez Sánchez, "Lección para el poderoso: El 
país rechazó la propaganda y defendió los derechos," /El Nuevo Día/, 
August 20, 2012,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/leccionparaelpoderoso-1326262.html; Ed 
Morales, "No Means No: A People's Victory in Puerto Rico," August 20, 
2012, 
http://emorales7.wordpress.com/2012/08/20/no-means-no-a-peoples-victory-in-puerto-rico/.

39. <#_ednref39>CB Online Staff, "PR governor signs gay rights bills," 
/Caribbean Business/, May 29, 2013, 
http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/pr-governor-signs-gay-rights-bills-85030.html.

40.Associated Press, <#_ednref40>"Attorneys for lesbian seeking to adopt 
child appeal Puerto Rico court ruling on gay adoptions," /Fox News, 
/March 06, 2013,

http://www.foxnews.com/world/2013/03/06/attorneys-for-lesbian-seeking-to-adopt-child-appeal-puerto-rico-court-ruling-on/.

41.CB Online Sta <#_ednref41>ff, "Census: PR 'brain drain' picking up," 
/Caribbean Business/, January 18, 2013,

http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/census-pr-brain-drain-picking-up-80281.html 
("[T]he percentage of people who left the island with some sort of 
college or post-secondary education rose to 50 percent in 2011 from 38 
percent the previous year. The average income of those who left the 
island surged 25 percent, marking the first time it has topped Puerto 
Rico's average income."); John Marino, "Census: P.R. Migration Continues 
at Record Pace: Exodus to the States accelerates, hurting growth 
prospects in many industries," /Caribbean Business/, January 12, 2012, 
http://newamericamedia.org/2012/01/puerto-rican-migration-continues-at-record-pace.php; 
Greg Allen, "One-Way Tickets To Florida: Puerto Ricans Escape Island 
Woes," /National Public Radio/, February 05, 2013, 
http://www.npr.org/player/v2/mediaPlayer.html?action=1&t=1&islist=false&id=171061350&m=171138294. 


42. <#_ednref42>José A. Delgado, "Somos menos: Urge estudiar a fondo las 
consecuencias del éxodo de población, /El Nuevo Día/, December 31, 2012, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/somosmenos-1329742.html.

43. <#_ednref43>Michael Kelly, "THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats -- 
Clinton and Bush Compete to Be Champion of Change; Democrat Fights 
Perceptions of Bush Gain," /New York Times/, October 31, 1992, 
http://www.nytimes.com/1992/10/31/us/1992-campaign-democrats-clinton-bush-compete-be-champion-change-democrat-fights.html.

44.Antonio R. G <#_ednref44>ómez, "Nuevos datos reflejan la dramática 
crisis social de Puerto Rico"

El Departamento de la Familia reveló las estadísticas,"/ El Nuevo Día/, 
May 4, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/nuevosdatosreflejanladramaticacrisissocialdepuertorico-1504244.html.

45.CB Online Staff, <#_ednref45>"Tough job scene for new grads in PR," 
/Caribbean Business/, May 7, 2013,

http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/tough-job-scene-for-new-grads-in-pr-84220.html.

46. <#_ednref46>"En 40% deserción escolar en PR, según Secretario de 
Educación," /Noticel,/ March 12, 2013, 
http://www.noticel.com/noticia/138621/en-40-desercion-escolar-en-pr-segun-secretario-de-educacion.html.

47.CB Online Staff, <#_ednref47>"PR bankruptcies on rise in 2013," 
/Caribbean Business/, June 3, 2013,

http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/pr-bankruptcies-on-rise-in-2013-85175.html.

48.Associated Press, <#_ednref48>"Puerto Rico teachers protest plan to 
cut retirement benefits, increase their contributions," /Fox News/, 
March 15, 2013,

http://www.foxnews.com/world/2013/03/15/puerto-rico-teachers-protest-plan-to-cut-retirement-benefits-increase-their/.

49.CB Online Staff, <#_ednref49>"PR economy slips into red for fiscal 
2013," /Caribbean Business/, June 3, 2013,

http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/pr-economy-slips-into-red-for-fiscal-2013-85153.html.

50.John Marino, <#_ednref50>"CNE's concerns on economy reach new 
heights," /Caribbean Business/, June 6, 2013,

http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/cnes-concerns-on-economy-reach-new-heights-85314.html.

51. <#_ednref51>Limarys Suárez Torres, "Casos de pena de muerte en 
Puerto Rico: Desde el 2003, el tribunal federal ha visto cuatro casos 
para decidir si se imparte el castigo letal," /El Nuevo Día/, March 23, 
2013, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/casosdepenademuerteenpuertorico-1476345.html.

52.Editorial, <#_ednref52>"A pasar la página de la pena capital," /El 
Nuevo Día/, April 28, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/editorial-apasarlapaginadelapenacapital-1499552.html.

53. <#_ednref53>Caribbean Business Online Staff, "PR cop killer dodges 
death penalty,"/ Caribbean Business/, April 12, 2013, 
http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/pr-cop-killer-dodges-death-penalty-83186.html. 
The U.S. courts operate in the English language, thus excluding the vast 
majority of Puerto Ricans from eligibility for jury duty.

54. <#_ednref54>See, e.g., "Concilio de Iglesias reanuda vigilias contra 
pena de muerte," /Telemundo/, March 14, 2013, 
http://www.telemundopr.com/telenoticias/puerto-rico/Concilio-de-Iglesias-reanuda-vigilias-contra-pena-de-muerte-197962361.html?m=y&smobile=y.

55.Editorial, <#_ednref55>"A pasar la página de la pena capital," /El 
Nuevo Día/, April 28, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/editorial-apasarlapaginadelapenacapital-1499552.html.

56. <#_ednref56>"Jury declines to impose death penalty in Puerto Rico 
murders," /Reuters/, March 23, 2013,

http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/03/24/us-usa-deathpenalty-puertorico-idUSBRE92N02020130324.

57.Mariana Cobi <#_ednref57>án, "Juez Fusté expresa que casos de pena de 
muerte son "una pérdida de tiempo," /Primera Hora/, April 17, 2013,

http://www.primerahora.com/noticias/policia-tribunales/nota/juezfusteexpresaquecasosdepenademuertesonunaperdidadetiempo-912885/.

58.Editorial, <#_ednref58>"A pasar la página de la pena capital," /El 
Nuevo Día/, April 28, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/editorial-apasarlapaginadelapenacapital-1499552.html.

59. <#_ednref59>Casa Pueblo, founded in the early 1980's, is an 
organization of community self-management that promotes voluntary 
participation, through individual and collective initiative, to propose 
and develop alternatives to protect the environment and affirm cultural 
and human values. Alexis Massol, one of its founders, was awarded the 
Goldman Environmental Prize in recognition of his sustained and 
significant efforts to protect and enhance the natural environment. 
http://casapueblo.org/.

60. <#_ednref60>Arturo Massol Deyá, "Derrotado Gasoducto El pueblo 
venció porque de pie se lucha," /Claridad/, October 16, 2012, 
http://www.claridadpuertorico.com/content.html?news=314A4AF0D86AEBAA1C52EC51A721AD6C.

61. <#_ednref61>Luis V. Gutíerrez, "Gasoducto: Puerto Rico's Pipeline 
Project Is Dead," October 11, 2012.

62. <#_ednref62>"Decepcionados con la EPA los opositores de incineradora 
en Arecibo: Guardaban esperanza de que sus planteamientos evitarían el 
permiso,"/ El Nuevo Día/, June 12, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/decepcionadosconlaepalosopositoresdeincineradoraenarecibo-1529874.html.

63. <#_ednref63>Gerardo E. Alvarado León, "Se quedan cortas las 
turbinas: No producen la energía prometida," /El Nuevo Día/, 
mailto:galvarado at elnuevodia.comMarch 12, 2013, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/sequedancortaslasturbinas-1466913.html.

64. <#_ednref64>Antonio R. Gómez, "García Padilla firma ley para 
preservar Corredor Ecológico del Noreste," /Primera Hora/, April 13, 
2013, 
http://www.primerahora.com/noticias/gobierno-politica/nota/garciapadillafirmaleyparapreservarcorredorecologicodelnoreste-video-911798/.

65.Mariana Cobi <#_ednref65>án, "Buscan limitar la pesca de peces loros 
para proteger corales: Las partes presentaron sus argumentos en la sala 
del juez federal Salvador Casellas," /El Nuevo Día/, June 12, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/buscanlimitarlapescadepeceslorosparaprotegercorales-1530163.html.

66.CB Online Staff, <#_ednref66>"Report: Clock ticks on Caribbean 
coral," /Caribbean Business/,

September 8, 2012, 
http://caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/report-clock-ticks-on-caribbean-coral-76096.html.

67. <#_ednref67>José A. Delgado, "El incumplimiento federal con 
Vieques," /El Nuevo Día/, May 4, 2013, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/blog-el_incumplimiento_federal_con_vieques-1503040.html.

68.Editorial, <#_ednref68>"La Marina Tiene Que Cumplir con Vieques," /El 
Nuevo Día/, February 25, 2013

http://www.elnuevodia.com/editorial-lamarinatienequecumplirconvieques-1454552.html. 
See also, Editorial, "Es Responsabilidad de la Casa Blanca," /El Nuevo 
Día/, March 25, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/editorial-esresponsabilidaddelacasablanca-1477317.html.

69. <#_ednref69>Unexploded bombs litter waters of Vieques, Puerto Rico, 
a decade after the U.S. Navy ceased target practice: The world has 
largely forgotten about the devastation the U.S. Navy left behind as the 
slow cleanup process continues," /New York Daily News/, May 1, 2013, 
http://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/gonzalez-10-years-devastation-vieques-waters-article-1.1332740#ixzz2S8Jfoc8v.

70. <#_ednref70>"Punishing Vieques: Puerto Rico Struggles With 
Contamination 10 Years After Activists Expel U.S. Navy," /Democracy 
Now/, May 2, 2013, 
http://www.democracynow.org/2013/5/2/punishing_vieques_puerto_rico_struggles_with.

71. <#_ednref71>Maritza Stanchich, "Ten Years After Ousting US Navy, 
Vieques Confronts Contamination," /Huffington Post/, May 14, 2013, 
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/maritza-stanchich-phd/ten-years-after-ousting-u_b_3243449.html.

72. <#_ednref72>Editorial, "Indulto Presidencial a Oscar López Rivera," 
/El Nuevo Día/, February 21, 2013, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/editorial-indultopresidencialaoscarlopezrivera-1453446.html#.USYWM6XZIkU.facebook.

73. <#_ednref73>"Puerto Rico: celebridades se "encarcelan" por Oscar 
López," /BBC/, May 30, 2013,

http://www.bbc.co.uk/mundo/ultimas_noticias/2013/05/130529_ultnot_protesta_puerto_rico_oscar_lopez_jrg.shtml; 
Hermes Ayala, "Finaliza masiva "encarcelación" por Oscar López Rivera, 
/NotiCel/, May 29, 2013, 
http://noticel.com/noticia/142504/finaliza-masiva-encarcelacion-por-oscar-lopez-rivera-itinerario-y-galeria.html.

74.Editorial, <#_ednref74>"Ya llegó la hora de liberar a Oscar," /El 
Nuevo Día/, May 29, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/editorial-yallegolahoradeliberaraoscar-1520995.html.

75.Gerardo Cordero, <#_ednref75>"Ricky Martin se une a reclamo por 
excarcelación de Oscar López,"/ Primera Hora/, May 29, 2013, 
http://www.primerahora.com/noticias/puerto-rico/nota/rickymartinseuneareclamoporexcarcelaciondeoscarlopez-924977/; 
David Iaconangelo, "Ricky Martin, Calle 13 And Other Famous Puerto 
Ricans Protest Oscar López Rivera's Imprisonment In Fake Jail Cells," 
/Latin Times/, May 30, 2013,

http://www.latintimes.com/articles/4610/20130530/ricky-martin-calle-13-famous-puerto-ricans.htm.

76. <#_ednref76>"René de Calle 13 se encarcela para pedir la libertad de 
Oscar López,"/ People en Español/, May 31, 2013,

http://www.peopleenespanol.com/article/rene-de-calle-13-se-encarcela-para-pedir-libertad-oscar-lopez. 
(The record breaking Grammy winner declared, "My crime is struggling for 
the independence of Puerto Rico, for all human rights, and for the 
release of Oscar López.").

77.CyberNews, <#_ednref77>"Acevedo Vilá entre los "32 x Oscar", la 
libertad de López Rivera," /Noticel/, May 21, 2013,

http://noticel.com/noticia/142174/acevedo-vila-entre-los-32-x-oscar-la-libertad-de-lopez-rivera.html.

78. <#_ednref78>"Presidente Senado de Puerto Rico pide a Obama liberar a 
López Rivera: Cumple 32 Años en Prisión," /Europa Press/, May 29, 2013,

http://www.europapress.es/latam/politica/noticia-puerto-rico-presidente-senado-pide-obama-excarcele-lopez-rivera-20130529211409.html.

79.Yesenia Torres F <#_ednref79>igueroa / InterNews Service, "Más se 
unen a reclamo excarcelación de Oscar López: Figuras políticas y de la 
vida privada han cruzado líneas ideológicas para unirse a la causa de 
solicitar cuanto antes la excarcelación de Oscar López Rivera, /WAPA 
TV/, May 29, 2013,

http://www.wapa.tv/noticias/locales/mas-se-unen-a-reclamo-excarcelacion-de-oscar-lopez_20130529141359.html 
(Ana Irma Rivera Lassén, told the media, "Today, May 29, 2013, I 
accompany Oscar López Rivera from this incarceration of freeing 
solidarity. The Puerto Rico Bar Assocation demands out loud, together 
with the voices of so many others, that it's time he comes home. On the 
day he marks 32 years of imprisonment, we celebrate his life with joy 
and lock ourselves up for his freedom. An imprisonment that unites us, 
even if for only a moment, with Oscar and his years of unjust punishment 
in solitary confinement, with the years of not seeing his closest 
family, his years of missing embraces, the years --- which are gone 
forever --- of shared memories with family and friends, the years during 
which Oscar has been gone from the great house of his homeland Puerto 
Rico.").

80. <#_ednref80>"Diez alcaldes y un centenar de personalidades irán 
presos por la excarcelación de Oscar López Rivera, /80GRADOS/, May 28, 
2013,

http://www.80grados.net/diez-alcaldes-y-un-centenar-de-personalidades-iran-presos-por-la-excarcelacion-de-oscar-lopez-rivera; 
Diez alcaldes presos por la excarcelación de Oscar López Rivera

/El Periódico/, May 29, 2013,

http://www.elperiodicopr.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3244:diez-alcaldes-presos-por-la-excarcelacion-de-oscar-lopez-rivera&catid=69:noticias&Itemid=124.

81.See, e.g., Daniel Rivera Vargas, <#_ednref81>"Obispo Rubén González 
se une a pedido de excarcelación de Oscar López," /Primera Hora/, May 
29, 2013,

http://www.primerahora.com/noticias/puerto-rico/nota/obisporubengonzalezseuneapedidodeexcarcelaciondeoscarlopez-925013/; 
Daniel Rivera Vargas, Alex Figueroa Cancel, Gerardo Cordero, Darisabel 
Texidor Guadalupe and Daileen Joan Rodriguez, "Figuras públicas 
continúan encarcelándose por Oscar López Rivera" Abogan por la 
liberación del preso político durante manifestación de 24 horas," /El 
Nuevo Día/, May 29, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/maspresosporlaexcarcelaciondeoscarlopezrivera-1521005.html#.UaYZKMmCAWA.facebook 
("Another temporary prisoner in San Juan was Catholic priest Ángel Darío 
Carrero, head of the Franciscan Order in Puerto Rio and the Caribbean. 
Upon entering the cell, the priest layed down on the floor in a 
reflective state and prayed.").

82.Daniel Rivera Vargas, Alex Figueroa Cancel, Gerardo Cordero, 
Darisabel Texidor Guadalu <#_ednref82>pe and Daileen Joan Rodriguez, 
"Figuras públicas continúan encarcelándose por Oscar López Rivera" 
Abogan por la liberación del preso político durante manifestación de 24 
horas," /El Nuevo Día/, May 29, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/maspresosporlaexcarcelaciondeoscarlopezrivera-1521005.html#.UaYZKMmCAWA.facebook 
(former major league baseball player Carlos Delgado wrote on the wall of 
the cell, "I can only imagine what an incredible amount of mental 
strength and courage you [Oscar] have.")

83. <#_ednref83>"Artistas cierran filas por excarcelación Oscar López 
Rivera,"/Fundación Nacional para la Cultura Popular/, May 30, 2013,

http://www.prpop.org/noticias/may2013/artistas-cierran-filas-por-excarcelacion-de-oscar-lopez-rivera-5302013-1.shtml.

84.Gerardo Cordero, <#_ednref84>"Conmovida la hija de Oscar López por 
apoyo al evento '32 x Oscar'," /Primera Hora/, May 29, 2013,

http://www.primerahora.com/noticias/puerto-rico/nota/conmovidalahijadeoscarlopezporapoyoalevento32xoscar-925065/.

85.InterNews Service, <#_ednref85>"Senado en PR por liberación de 
López," /El Diario/La Prensa/, June 1, 2013,

http://www.eldiariony.com/noticiasnuestros-paises/article/20130601/Senado-en-PR-por-liberacion-de-Lopez.

86. <#_ednref86>"Oscar López Rivera: After 32 Years in Prison, Calls 
Grow for Release of Puerto Rican Activist," /Democracy Now/, May 31, 
2013, 
http://www.democracynow.org/2013/5/31/oscar_lpez_rivera_after_32_years; 
"Archbishop Desmond Tutu on Oscar López Rivera," 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HYf7AWkaV3I; "Nobel Peace Laureate 
Mairead Corrigan Maguire on Oscar López Rivera," 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ptWv4IzC4Q; "Nobel Peace Laureate and 
Past President of East Timor José Ramos-Horta," 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k-Dck0gVZrc.

87.See, e.g., Anthony Moujaes, <#_ednref87> "UCC officers to visit 
political prisoner," /UCC News/, August 2, 2012, 
http://www.ucc.org/news/ucc-officers-to-visit.html; "Encarcelamiento 
Simbólico," Confederación Latinoamericana y Caribeña de Religiosos y 
Religiosas, May 21, 2013,

http://www.clar.org/clar/index.php?module=Contenido&func=viewpub&tid=2&pid=650.

88.See, e,g., InterNews Service, <#_ednref88>"Foro Sao Paulo apoya 
independencia Puerto Rico y excarcelación Oscar López Rivera y rechaza 
plebiscito,"/ Claridad/, July 6, 2012,

http://www.claridadpuertorico.com/content.html?news=5DA005AC003E3A8229F8A456BEB47452.

89.See, e.g., <#_ednref89>"García Padilla se une petición de 
excarcelación de Oscar López Rivera: Figuras públicas se encierran en 
celdas en protesta, /El Nuevo Día/, May 29, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/garciapadillaseunepeticiondeexcarcelaciondeoscarlopezrivera-1521025.html 
(the governor of Puerto Rico); Cándida Cotto, "Crece apoyo a reclamo de 
libertad para Oscar López Rivera," /Claridad/, December 11, 2012,

http://www.claridadpuertorico.com/content.html?news=78DCECF6C444C7EA431B541D71FFB492 
(president of Puerto Rico Senate, many mayors, and president of Mayor's 
Association).

90. <#_ednref90>See, e.g., "Médicos cirujanos piden libertad de Oscar 
López," /NotiCel/, July 3, 2012, 
http://www.claridadpuertorico.com/content.html?news=4DFBB4C19379692964AB3D3BD8D94526.

91.See, e.g., C <#_ednref91>ándida Cotto, "FEDECOOP apoya excarcelación 
Oscar," /Claridad/, May 14, 2013,

http://www.claridadpuertorico.com/content.html?news=670F0905B2C9E1921EACC95D63E74170.

92. <#_ednref92>"Procurador del veterano pide liberación de Oscar 
López:El licenciado Agustín Montañez Allman le envió una carta al 
presidente Obama en la que le pide considere el servicio militar y los 
logros de López Rivera en la milicia," /El Nuevo Día/, June 4, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/procuradordelveteranopideliberaciondeoscarlopez-1525012.html.

93. <#_ednref93>Patricia Vargas Casiano, "'Quiero volar': La reina ya se 
ve desplazándose por el escenario y alcanzando la segunda corona de Miss 
Mundo para Puerto Rico, /El Nuevo Día/, June 2, 2013, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/quierovolar-1523099.html.

94. <#_ednref94>"Tito Kayak celebró su cumpleaños remando: El activista 
cumplió 54 años en las aguas caribeñas," /El Nuevo Día/, July 24, 2012, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/titokayakcelebrosucumpleanosremando-1307841.html.

95. <#_ednref95>"Líderes internacionales y puertorriqueños se reúnen en 
San Juan en Encuentro de Derechos Humanos," /Claridad/, December 5, 
2012, 
http://www.claridadpuertorico.com/content.html?news=4213BB58B400D6C533CA50BEB9D5C9DB; 
Rebecca Banuchi, "Políticos se unen para pedir excarcelación de Oscar 
López Rivera: El boricua ha estado preso durante 31 años," /El Nuevo 
Día/, December 9, 2012,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/politicosseunenparapedirexcarcelaciondeoscarlopezrivera-1404111.html.

96.InterNews Service, <#_ednref96>"Del 21 al 24 febrero Festival de 
Apoyo a Claridad dedicado a Oscar López Rivera," /Claridad,/ February 
20, 2013 
http://www.claridadpuertorico.com/content.html?news=AE438A98DD8FDFF90EF70A9501215F77; 
Patricia Rivera Polanco, "Festival de CLARIDAD: Por la excacerlación de 
Oscar," /Claridad/, February 25, 2013,

http://www.claridadpuertorico.com/content.html?news=B4F1B9EAD6C96180EDA408BAA6B56566.

97.See, e.g., InterNews Service, <#_ednref97>"Oscar López: 'Antesala a 
la libertad': Reabre la sala San Juan Bautista con exposición de Óscar 
López 'Antesala a la libertad,'" /WAPA Television/, May 27, 2013,

http://www.wapa.tv/noticias/entretenimiento/oscar-lopez---antesala-a-la-libertad-_20130527154718.html.

98. <#_ednref98>See, e.g., "Un mural por Oscar,", April 21, 2013, 
http://www.otropuertoricoesposible.org/2013/04/un-mural-por-oscar.html.

99. <#_ednref99>"Carmen Yulín le dedica su triunfo a Oscar López," 
/Claridad/, November 14, 2012, 
http://www.claridadpuertorico.com/content.html?news=D528EAC0C7F025719D68A15D4293AB2C.

100.Jos <#_ednref100>é A. Delgado, "García Padilla sobre Oscar López," 
/El Nuevo Día/, June 12, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/blog-garcia_padilla_sobre_oscar_lopez-1529826.html.

101. <#_ednref101>"Sánchez Betances confía que cambie la situación del 
preso Oscar López: El secretario de Justicia de Estados Unidos, Eric 
Holder, dice que no es irrazonable la excarcelación Oscar López, 
/METRO.PR,/ June 13, 2013,

http://www.metro.pr/locales/sanchez-betances-confia-que-cambie-la-situacion-del-preso-oscar-lopez/pGXmfm!aaORunstFOUtU/.

102. <#_ednref102>"Senado en PR por liberación de López," /El Diario/La 
Prensa/, June 1, 2013,

http://www.eldiariony.com/noticiasnuestros-paises/article/20130601/Senado-en-PR-por-liberacion-de-Lopez.

1./Report by the President's Task Force on Puerto Rico's Status/, March, 
2011, Executive Summary at 3, 
http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/uploads/Puerto_Rico_Task_Force_ExecSummary.pdf.

2."Puerto Rican Lawyer speaks at the UN Decolonisation Committee 
seminar," /MercoPress/, May 29, 2013,

http://en.mercopress.com/2013/05/29/puerto-rican-lawyer-speaks-at-the-un-decolonisation-committee-seminar; 
"Estados Unidos no permite la libre determinación de Puerto Rico: 
Abogada puertorriqueña habla en seminario del Comité de Descolonización 
de la ONU," /El Nuevo Día/, May 29, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/estadosunidosnopermitelalibredeterminaciondepuertorico-1521049.html#.UaZrrEQ3SoM.facebook.

3.Rafael Anglada López and Olga I. Sanabria Dávila, "El seudo plebiscito 
-- Un engaño sobre Puerto Rico," /Red Betances/, November 2, 2012,

http://www.redbetances.com/component/content/article/51-en-portada/1319-rafael-anglada-lopez-y-olga-i-sanabria-davila.html.

4.Ed Morales, "The Puerto Rico Plebiscite That Wasn't," /ABC News/, 
November 8, 2012,

http://abcnews.go.com/ABC_Univision/Opinion/puerto-rico-status-plebiscite/story?id=17674719&singlePage=true#.UYMtJ6I2xbY. 


5.Ed Morales, "The Puerto Rico Plebiscite That Wasn't," /ABC News/, 
November 8, 2012,

http://abcnews.go.com/ABC_Univision/Opinion/puerto-rico-status-plebiscite/story?id=17674719&singlePage=true#.UYMtJ6I2xbY.

6.Danica Coto, Associated Press, "PR seeks to solve status issue," 
/Caribbean Business/, mailto:cb.pr at gmail.comNovember 4, 2012, 
http://caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/pr-seeks-to-solve-status-issue-78257.html. 


7.Danica Coto, "Puerto Rico votes to change relationship with US; 
majority wants statehood," /MSNBC/, November 8, 2012, 
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/49737548/#.UJyTReRfDN9; see also, 
http://prfaa.pr.gov/espanol/noticias/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Resolucion-Concurrente-24.pdf.

8.Ed Morales, "The Puerto Rico Plebiscite That Wasn't," /ABC News/, 
November 8, 2012,

http://abcnews.go.com/ABC_Univision/Opinion/puerto-rico-status-plebiscite/story?id=17674719&singlePage=true#.UYMtJ6I2xbY. 


9.Jack Kenny, "Puerto Rico Vote for Statehood Questioned,"/ New 
American/, November 8, 2012, 
http://www.thenewamerican.com/usnews/politics/item/13568-puerto-rico-vote-for-statehood-questioned. 


10.José A. Delgado, "Casa Blanca dice que no hubo un mandato a favor de 
la estadidad: Portavoz hace nuevos comentarios sobre los resultados del 
plebiscito de status," /El Nuevo Día/, December 3, 2012,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/casablancadicequenohubounmandatoafavordelaestadidad-1400069.html. 


11.CB Online Staff, "PR status plebiscite in Obama budget," /Caribbean 
Business/, April 10, 2013, 
http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/pr-status-plebiscite-in-obama-budget-83109.html; 
Danica Coto, Associated Press, "US Seeks to Fund New Puerto Rico Status 
Plebiscite," /ABC News/, April 11, 2013,

http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/us-seeks-fund-puerto-rico-status-plebiscite-18927565#.UWgDDKLpVbY; 
"Obama destinará más de $2 millones para plebiscito en la Isla," 
/Metro/, April 10, 2013,

http://www.metro.pr/mundo/obama-destinara-mas-de-2-millones-para-plebiscito-en-la-isla/pGXmdj!wBO01fXtIT0I/ 


12."Bill in U.S. Congress seeks vote on Puerto Rican statehood," 
/Reuters/, May 15, 2013,

http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/05/15/us-usa-puertorico-status-idUSBRE94E11320130515; 
See, e.g., Congresswoman Nydia Velázquez on Puerto Rico Status 
Legislation, May 15, 2013, ("Rep. Nydia M. Velázquez (D-NY) made the 
following statement regarding Puerto Rico status legislation introduced 
in the House today: 'If we are to fairly resolve the issue of Puerto 
Rico's status, we must find a framework for true self-determination. The 
'Puerto Rico Status Resolution Act' being introduced today fails that 
test in every aspect: it denies Puerto Ricans a true vehicle for 
self-determination and fabricates a superficial majority in favor of 
statehood.'"); CB Online Staff, "Gutiérrez: Status bill does nothing for 
PR," /Caribbean Business/, May 15, 2013,

http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/gutierrez-status-bill-does-nothing-for-pr-84597.html.

13.Eugenio Hopgood Dávila, "Sí" a que Pesquera se quede: El 
superintendente, entretanto, guarda silencio sobre sus planes," /El 
Nuevo Día/, March 2, 2013, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/siaquepesquerasequede-1460174.html.

14."Departamento de Justicia Federal demanda a la Policía de Puerto 
Rico: La acción se basa en una investigación comenzada en 2008, que 
reveló que la Uniformada ha violado los derechos civiles a la 
ciudadanía," /El Nuevo Día/, December 21, 2012,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/departamentodejusticiafederaldemandaalapoliciadepuertorico-1413140.html; 
CB Online Staff, "PR, feds negotiate costly police reform," /Caribbean 
Business/, May 21, 2013, 
http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/pr-feds-negotiate-costly-police-reform-84759.html.The 
U.S. DOJ intervention is ironic, given that former agents of its own FBI 
have administered the Puerto Rico Police Department for decades, and 
that Puerto Rico police receive training from the U.S.

15.Belén Fernández, "Puerto Rico's outlaw police force: Police in the US 
territory have been accused of civil rights abuses and overzealous 
crackdowns on peaceful protests," /Aljazeera/, June 26, 2012,

http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2012/06/2012620112025706894.html.

16.Ivelisse Rivera Quiñones, "FBI gradúa a civiles en academia especial: 
Unos 20 ciudadanos conocieron el funcionamiento de esta agencia," /El 
Nuevo Día/, March 10, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/fbigraduaacivilesenacademiaespecial-1465608.html.

17.See, e.g., Alex Figueroa Cancel, "Desarticulan ganga de narcos de 
lujo: Federales diligencian 21 órdenes de arresto por cargos de 
narcotráfico y lavado de dinero,"/ El Nuevo Día/, September 26, 2012,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/desarticulangangadenarcosdelujo-1351338.html; 
"Megaoperativo federal en Río Piedras," /NotiCel/, February 28, 2013, 
http://www.noticel.com/noticia/138011/megaoperativo-federal-en-rio-piedras.html.

18."Fortuño exige acción a los federales para combatir narcotráfico," 
/Primera Hora/, January 13, 2012,

http://www.primerahora.com/fortunoexigeaccionalosfederalesparacombatirnarcotrafico-602227.html 
("'The federal security agencies in Puerto Rico lack the necessary 
resources to combat the illegal entry of drugs and to guarantee the 
security of the Puerto Rican people. This is a matter of national 
security. Puerto Rico deserves to be treated the same as the 50 states, 
and the disproportionate amount of resources is what is generating 
repercussions in the increase of drug trafficking in the region. The 
level of violence caused by drug trafficking that exists today is 
without precedent, and is directly tied to the Island's position as the 
center of the unprotected border of the Caribbean,' wrote the Governor 
in one of his letters. The Chief Executive pointed out that given the 
disproportionate levels of violent crime existing in Puerto Rico, 
compared with other other states on the border with Mexico, there is 
evidence that federal law enforcement agencies on the Island need to be 
strengthened."); José A. Delgado, "Escala en Washington el reclamo de 
seguridad: Pierluisi se reúne con Seguridad Interna," El Nuevo Día, 
January 18, 2012,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/escalaenwashingtonelreclamo-1168032.html; 
InterNews Service, "Homeland Security undersecretary met with 
Pierluisi," /Puerto Rico Daily Sun/, January 18, 2012,

http://www.prdailysun.com/news/Homeland-Security-undersecretary-met-with-Pierluisi.

19."Pesquera: Estados Unidos está "jodido" si no ayuda a PR con la 
criminalidad," NotiCel, March 28, 2013,

http://www.noticel.com/noticia/139468/pesquera-estados-unidos-esta-jodido-si-no-ayuda-a-pr-con-la-criminalidad.html; 
"Reclaman más recursos contra el narcotráfico en Puerto Rico: Comité del 
Senado acoge iniciativa del comisionado Pierluisi, /El Nuevo Día/, March 
12, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/reclamanmasrecursoscontraelnarcotraficoenpuertorico-1467842.html; 
Gerardo Cordero, "Fortuño quiere más agentes federales en Puerto Rico: 
La aspiración máxima del gobernador sería lograr lo que han denominado 
iniciativa de la frontera del Caribe," /El Nuevo Día/, September 19, 
2012, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/fortunoquieremasagentesfederalesenpuertorico-1347505.html. 


20.See, e.g., "Desarticulan narcogangas más de 200 federales: 
Intervienen en cinco residenciales de Arecibo, /El Nuevo Día/, March 21, 
2013, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/desarticulannarcogangasmasde200federales-1474512.html.

21.Yaritza Santiago, "Alarman los métodos del gobierno federal: 
Operativos en sitios públicos ponen en riesgo vidas inocentes," /El 
Nuevo Día/, July 29, 2012,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/alarmanlosmetodosdelgobiernofederal-1310503.html 
(federal law enforcement pattern of opening fire in busy shopping malls, 
endangering the surrounding public).

22.CB Online Staff, "Obama budget has $95M for FBI facility in PR," 
/Caribbean Business/, April 10, 2013,

http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/obama-budget-has-$95m-for-fbi-facility-in-pr-83141.html 
(estimated total cost of the project: $106.6 million).

23.See, e.g., Oscar J. Serrano, "DEA discrimina contra agentes 
boricuas," /Noticel/, February 6, 2012,

http://www.noticel.com/noticia/117743/dea-discrimina-contra-agentes-boricuas.html 
(ten Puerto Rican agents employed by the U.S. Drug Enforcement 
Administration sued that agency for systematic discrimination, alleging 
that they receive lower salaries than their U.S. counterparts, and that 
they are used as "cannon fodder" during investigations, while their U.S. 
counterparts are not exposed to danger). See also, Alex Figueroa Cancel, 
"Denuncian discrimen contra veteranos puertorriqueños: Alegan en foro 
que no reciben el mismo trato que en EE.UU.," /El Nuevo Día/, September 
11, 2012,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/denunciandiscrimencontraveteranospuertorriquenos-1341378.html.

24.See, e.g., Alex Figueroa Cancel, "FBI investiga casos de corrupción 
pública: Aseguran que será prioridad," /El Nuevo Día/, February 11, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/fbiinvestigacasosdecorrupcionpublica-1446068.html; 
Limarys Suárez Torres, "FBI investiga a alguaciles federales y policías 
locales en Puerto Rico: Por la presunta violación de derechos civiles, 
/El Nuevo Día/, December 29, 2012,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/fbiinvestigaaalguacilesfederalesypoliciaslocalesenpuertorico-1416899.html.

25.Joanisabel González, "Pesquisa federal al Banco Gubernamental de 
Fomento: El regulador federal realiza pesquisa por transacciones de 
Retiro y Carreteras," /El Nuevo Día/, May 3, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/pesquisafederalalbancogubernamentaldefomento-1503074.html; 
Alex Figueroa Cancel, "Operativo federal contra organización dedicada al 
fraude bancario: Diligencian 42 órdenes de arresto en nueve municipios y 
seis estados," /El Nuevo Día/, May 24, 2013, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/operativofederalporfraudebancario-1518175.html.

26.Antonio R. Gómez, "Federales ampliaron pesquisa tras intervención en 
la UPR: La orden que tramitaron ayer oficiales del gobierno federal 
representa una ampliación y profundización de la pesquisa," /El Nuevo 
Día/, April 27, 2013, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/federalesampliaronpesquisatrasintervencionenlaupr-1499608.html.

27.Federales protegen coquí a punto de desaparecer: El coquí llanero es 
declarado en peligro de extinción," /El Nuevo Día/, October 4, 2012, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/federalesprotegencoquiapuntodedesaparecer-1356894.html.

28.See, e.g., "Hostigamiento y persecución a independentistas 
puertorriqueños que viajan a países latinoamericanos," Fundación 
Filiberto Ojeda Ríos, April 14, 2010, 
http://www.cubadebate.cu/noticias/2010/04/14/persecucion-contra-independentistas-puerto-rico/;

José A. Delgado, "Soberanista pasa malrato en Inmigración: Manuel Rivera 
relata que lo interrogan sobre reuniones de política en España," /El 
Nuevo Día/, October 23, 2010,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/soberanistapasamalratoeninmigracion-803681.html; 
CyberNews, "Impiden salida del país a líder nacionalista," /Noticel/, 
June 6, 2013,

http://noticel.com/noticia/141387/impiden-salida-del-pais-a-lider-nacionalista.html.

29.José A. Delgado, "Más pobres y más PAN en la Isla: Llegan a $2,056 
millones los fondos del PAN, $400 millones más que los del 2008," El 
Nuevo Día, October 28, 2012, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/maspobresymaspanenlaisla-1372815.html.

30.José A. Delgado, "Inyectan millones de dólares para mejoras a 
carreteras y puentes en Puerto Rico: Los fondos son parte de $473 
millones que nunca fueron entregados a 49 estados, Washington D.C. y 
Puerto Rico," /El Nuevo Día/, August 17, 2012,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/inyectanmillonesdedolaresparamejorasacarreterasypuentesenpuertorico-1324796.html; 
CB Online Staff, "$3.5M in federal funds for PR roads," /Caribbean 
Business/, February 16, 2013, 
http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/$3.5m-in-federal-funds-for-pr-roads-81217.html; 
CB Online Staff, "$26.8M for VA Hospital parking lot," /Caribbean 
Business/, October 8, 2012,

http://caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/$26.8m-for-va-hospital-parking-lot-77217.html.

31."US Labor Dep't grants funds for re-employment," /Puerto Rico Daily 
Sun/, May 8, 2012, 
http://www.prdailysun.com/news/US-Labor-Dept-grants-funds-for-re-employment.

32.CB Online Staff, "PR gets $249K to protect wetlands," /Caribbean 
Business/, February 11, 2013, 
http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/pr-gets-$249k-to-protect-wetlands-81015.html; 
José A. Delgado, "EPA asigna fondos para aguas limpias: Distribuye $46 
millones a oficinas en Puerto Rico, /El Nuevo Día/, October 20, 2012, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/epaasignafondosparaaguaslimpias-1367123.html.

33.See, e.g., Antonio R. Gómez, "Alega una "falta de cortesía": Perelló 
truena contra la FAA, /El Nuevo Día/, February 27, 2013, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/alegaunafaltadecortesia-1457308.html.

34.Editorial, "Previsiones Ante Recorte Federal," /El Nuevo Día/, March 
4, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/editorial-previsionesanterecortefederal-1461028.html 
(An editorial in Puerto Rico's main daily newspaper warned "Without any 
agreement in the U.S. capital, where the Island has no decisive power, a 
drastic package of budget cuts has begun, known as the 'sequester,'" 
which will impose an austerity program affecting essential services in 
Puerto Rico funded by the U.S. in the areas of education, defense, 
public health, environmental, and violence against women. "More than 300 
university students could lose financial aid funding, more than 2,300 
might be left without access to work study programs, some 2,400 Head 
Start children may have no classes, some 70 educators could lose their 
jobs, and some 300 women victims of domestic violence could lose vital 
survival servies, among others.").

35.Carlos Gallisá, "Federalización de las elecciones," /Claridad/, 
October 23, 2012,

http://www.claridadpuertorico.com/content.html?news=95A67941914FA440A47E152E762F2DD9.

36.CB Online Staff, "Federal government adds 2 PR sites to list of 
national historic landmarks," /Caribbean Business/, March 11, 2013,

37.Yaritza Santiago Caraballo, "Batalla de David contra Goliat: El PNP 
invirtió miles en el "Sí", pero los del "No" apenas gastaron," /El Nuevo 
Día/, August 18, 2012, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/batalladedavidcontragoliat-1324968.html.

38.Israel Rodríguez Sánchez, "Lección para el poderoso: El país rechazó 
la propaganda y defendió los derechos," /El Nuevo Día/, August 20, 2012,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/leccionparaelpoderoso-1326262.html; Ed 
Morales, "No Means No: A People's Victory in Puerto Rico," August 20, 
2012, 
http://emorales7.wordpress.com/2012/08/20/no-means-no-a-peoples-victory-in-puerto-rico/.

39.CB Online Staff, "PR governor signs gay rights bills," /Caribbean 
Business/, May 29, 2013, 
http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/pr-governor-signs-gay-rights-bills-85030.html.

40.Associated Press, "Attorneys for lesbian seeking to adopt child 
appeal Puerto Rico court ruling on gay adoptions," /Fox News, /March 06, 
2013,

http://www.foxnews.com/world/2013/03/06/attorneys-for-lesbian-seeking-to-adopt-child-appeal-puerto-rico-court-ruling-on/.

41.CB Online Staff, "Census: PR 'brain drain' picking up," /Caribbean 
Business/, January 18, 2013,

http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/census-pr-brain-drain-picking-up-80281.html 
("[T]he percentage of people who left the island with some sort of 
college or post-secondary education rose to 50 percent in 2011 from 38 
percent the previous year. The average income of those who left the 
island surged 25 percent, marking the first time it has topped Puerto 
Rico's average income."); John Marino, "Census: P.R. Migration Continues 
at Record Pace: Exodus to the States accelerates, hurting growth 
prospects in many industries," /Caribbean Business/, January 12, 2012, 
http://newamericamedia.org/2012/01/puerto-rican-migration-continues-at-record-pace.php; 
Greg Allen, "One-Way Tickets To Florida: Puerto Ricans Escape Island 
Woes," /National Public Radio/, February 05, 2013, 
http://www.npr.org/player/v2/mediaPlayer.html?action=1&t=1&islist=false&id=171061350&m=171138294. 


42.José A. Delgado, "Somos menos: Urge estudiar a fondo las 
consecuencias del éxodo de población, /El Nuevo Día/, December 31, 2012, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/somosmenos-1329742.html.

43.Michael Kelly, "THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats -- Clinton and Bush 
Compete to Be Champion of Change; Democrat Fights Perceptions of Bush 
Gain," /New York Times/, October 31, 1992, 
http://www.nytimes.com/1992/10/31/us/1992-campaign-democrats-clinton-bush-compete-be-champion-change-democrat-fights.html.

44.Antonio R. Gómez, "Nuevos datos reflejan la dramática crisis social 
de Puerto Rico"

El Departamento de la Familia reveló las estadísticas,"/ El Nuevo Día/, 
May 4, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/nuevosdatosreflejanladramaticacrisissocialdepuertorico-1504244.html.

45.CB Online Staff, "Tough job scene for new grads in PR," /Caribbean 
Business/, May 7, 2013,

http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/tough-job-scene-for-new-grads-in-pr-84220.html.

46."En 40% deserción escolar en PR, según Secretario de Educación," 
/Noticel,/ March 12, 2013, 
http://www.noticel.com/noticia/138621/en-40-desercion-escolar-en-pr-segun-secretario-de-educacion.html.

47.CB Online Staff, "PR bankruptcies on rise in 2013," /Caribbean 
Business/, June 3, 2013,

http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/pr-bankruptcies-on-rise-in-2013-85175.html.

48.Associated Press, "Puerto Rico teachers protest plan to cut 
retirement benefits, increase their contributions," /Fox News/, March 
15, 2013,

http://www.foxnews.com/world/2013/03/15/puerto-rico-teachers-protest-plan-to-cut-retirement-benefits-increase-their/.

49.CB Online Staff, "PR economy slips into red for fiscal 2013," 
/Caribbean Business/, June 3, 2013,

http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/pr-economy-slips-into-red-for-fiscal-2013-85153.html.

50.John Marino, "CNE's concerns on economy reach new heights," 
/Caribbean Business/, June 6, 2013,

http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/cnes-concerns-on-economy-reach-new-heights-85314.html.

51.Limarys Suárez Torres, "Casos de pena de muerte en Puerto Rico: Desde 
el 2003, el tribunal federal ha visto cuatro casos para decidir si se 
imparte el castigo letal," /El Nuevo Día/, March 23, 2013, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/casosdepenademuerteenpuertorico-1476345.html.

52.Editorial, "A pasar la página de la pena capital," /El Nuevo Día/, 
April 28, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/editorial-apasarlapaginadelapenacapital-1499552.html.

53.Caribbean Business Online Staff, "PR cop killer dodges death 
penalty,"/ Caribbean Business/, April 12, 2013, 
http://www.caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/pr-cop-killer-dodges-death-penalty-83186.html. 
The U.S. courts operate in the English language, thus excluding the vast 
majority of Puerto Ricans from eligibility for jury duty.

54.See, e.g., "Concilio de Iglesias reanuda vigilias contra pena de 
muerte," /Telemundo/, March 14, 2013, 
http://www.telemundopr.com/telenoticias/puerto-rico/Concilio-de-Iglesias-reanuda-vigilias-contra-pena-de-muerte-197962361.html?m=y&smobile=y.

55.Editorial, "A pasar la página de la pena capital," /El Nuevo Día/, 
April 28, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/editorial-apasarlapaginadelapenacapital-1499552.html.

56."Jury declines to impose death penalty in Puerto Rico murders," 
/Reuters/, March 23, 2013,

http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/03/24/us-usa-deathpenalty-puertorico-idUSBRE92N02020130324.

57.Mariana Cobián, "Juez Fusté expresa que casos de pena de muerte son 
"una pérdida de tiempo," /Primera Hora/, April 17, 2013,

http://www.primerahora.com/noticias/policia-tribunales/nota/juezfusteexpresaquecasosdepenademuertesonunaperdidadetiempo-912885/.

58.Editorial, "A pasar la página de la pena capital," /El Nuevo Día/, 
April 28, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/editorial-apasarlapaginadelapenacapital-1499552.html.

59.Casa Pueblo, founded in the early 1980's, is an organization of 
community self-management that promotes voluntary participation, through 
individual and collective initiative, to propose and develop 
alternatives to protect the environment and affirm cultural and human 
values. Alexis Massol, one of its founders, was awarded the Goldman 
Environmental Prize in recognition of his sustained and significant 
efforts to protect and enhance the natural environment. 
http://casapueblo.org/.

60.Arturo Massol Deyá, "Derrotado Gasoducto El pueblo venció porque de 
pie se lucha," /Claridad/, October 16, 2012, 
http://www.claridadpuertorico.com/content.html?news=314A4AF0D86AEBAA1C52EC51A721AD6C.

61.Luis V. Gutíerrez, "Gasoducto: Puerto Rico's Pipeline Project Is 
Dead," October 11, 2012.

62."Decepcionados con la EPA los opositores de incineradora en Arecibo: 
Guardaban esperanza de que sus planteamientos evitarían el permiso,"/ El 
Nuevo Día/, June 12, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/decepcionadosconlaepalosopositoresdeincineradoraenarecibo-1529874.html.

63.Gerardo E. Alvarado León, "Se quedan cortas las turbinas: No producen 
la energía prometida," /El Nuevo Día/, 
mailto:galvarado at elnuevodia.comMarch 12, 2013, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/sequedancortaslasturbinas-1466913.html.

64.Antonio R. Gómez, "García Padilla firma ley para preservar Corredor 
Ecológico del Noreste," /Primera Hora/, April 13, 2013, 
http://www.primerahora.com/noticias/gobierno-politica/nota/garciapadillafirmaleyparapreservarcorredorecologicodelnoreste-video-911798/.

65.Mariana Cobián, "Buscan limitar la pesca de peces loros para proteger 
corales: Las partes presentaron sus argumentos en la sala del juez 
federal Salvador Casellas," /El Nuevo Día/, June 12, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/buscanlimitarlapescadepeceslorosparaprotegercorales-1530163.html.

66.CB Online Staff, "Report: Clock ticks on Caribbean coral," /Caribbean 
Business/,

September 8, 2012, 
http://caribbeanbusinesspr.com/news/report-clock-ticks-on-caribbean-coral-76096.html.

67.José A. Delgado, "El incumplimiento federal con Vieques," /El Nuevo 
Día/, May 4, 2013, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/blog-el_incumplimiento_federal_con_vieques-1503040.html.

68.Editorial, "La Marina Tiene Que Cumplir con Vieques," /El Nuevo Día/, 
February 25, 2013

http://www.elnuevodia.com/editorial-lamarinatienequecumplirconvieques-1454552.html. 
See also, Editorial, "Es Responsabilidad de la Casa Blanca," /El Nuevo 
Día/, March 25, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/editorial-esresponsabilidaddelacasablanca-1477317.html.

69.Unexploded bombs litter waters of Vieques, Puerto Rico, a decade 
after the U.S. Navy ceased target practice: The world has largely 
forgotten about the devastation the U.S. Navy left behind as the slow 
cleanup process continues," /New York Daily News/, May 1, 2013, 
http://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/gonzalez-10-years-devastation-vieques-waters-article-1.1332740#ixzz2S8Jfoc8v.

70."Punishing Vieques: Puerto Rico Struggles With Contamination 10 Years 
After Activists Expel U.S. Navy," /Democracy Now/, May 2, 2013, 
http://www.democracynow.org/2013/5/2/punishing_vieques_puerto_rico_struggles_with.

71.Maritza Stanchich, "Ten Years After Ousting US Navy, Vieques 
Confronts Contamination," /Huffington Post/, May 14, 2013, 
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/maritza-stanchich-phd/ten-years-after-ousting-u_b_3243449.html.

72.Editorial, "Indulto Presidencial a Oscar López Rivera," /El Nuevo 
Día/, February 21, 2013, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/editorial-indultopresidencialaoscarlopezrivera-1453446.html#.USYWM6XZIkU.facebook.

73."Puerto Rico: celebridades se "encarcelan" por Oscar López," /BBC/, 
May 30, 2013,

http://www.bbc.co.uk/mundo/ultimas_noticias/2013/05/130529_ultnot_protesta_puerto_rico_oscar_lopez_jrg.shtml; 
Hermes Ayala, "Finaliza masiva "encarcelación" por Oscar López Rivera, 
/NotiCel/, May 29, 2013, 
http://noticel.com/noticia/142504/finaliza-masiva-encarcelacion-por-oscar-lopez-rivera-itinerario-y-galeria.html.

74.Editorial, "Ya llegó la hora de liberar a Oscar," /El Nuevo Día/, May 
29, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/editorial-yallegolahoradeliberaraoscar-1520995.html.

75.Gerardo Cordero, "Ricky Martin se une a reclamo por excarcelación de 
Oscar López,"/ Primera Hora/, May 29, 2013, 
http://www.primerahora.com/noticias/puerto-rico/nota/rickymartinseuneareclamoporexcarcelaciondeoscarlopez-924977/; 
David Iaconangelo, "Ricky Martin, Calle 13 And Other Famous Puerto 
Ricans Protest Oscar López Rivera's Imprisonment In Fake Jail Cells," 
/Latin Times/, May 30, 2013,

http://www.latintimes.com/articles/4610/20130530/ricky-martin-calle-13-famous-puerto-ricans.htm.

76."René de Calle 13 se encarcela para pedir la libertad de Oscar 
López,"/ People en Español/, May 31, 2013,

http://www.peopleenespanol.com/article/rene-de-calle-13-se-encarcela-para-pedir-libertad-oscar-lopez. 
(The record breaking Grammy winner declared, "My crime is struggling for 
the independence of Puerto Rico, for all human rights, and for the 
release of Oscar López.").

77.CyberNews, "Acevedo Vilá entre los "32 x Oscar", la libertad de López 
Rivera," /Noticel/, May 21, 2013,

http://noticel.com/noticia/142174/acevedo-vila-entre-los-32-x-oscar-la-libertad-de-lopez-rivera.html.

78."Presidente Senado de Puerto Rico pide a Obama liberar a López 
Rivera: Cumple 32 Años en Prisión," /Europa Press/, May 29, 2013,

http://www.europapress.es/latam/politica/noticia-puerto-rico-presidente-senado-pide-obama-excarcele-lopez-rivera-20130529211409.html.

79.Yesenia Torres Figueroa / InterNews Service, "Más se unen a reclamo 
excarcelación de Oscar López: Figuras políticas y de la vida privada han 
cruzado líneas ideológicas para unirse a la causa de solicitar cuanto 
antes la excarcelación de Oscar López Rivera, /WAPA TV/, May 29, 2013,

http://www.wapa.tv/noticias/locales/mas-se-unen-a-reclamo-excarcelacion-de-oscar-lopez_20130529141359.html 
(Ana Irma Rivera Lassén, told the media, "Today, May 29, 2013, I 
accompany Oscar López Rivera from this incarceration of freeing 
solidarity. The Puerto Rico Bar Assocation demands out loud, together 
with the voices of so many others, that it's time he comes home. On the 
day he marks 32 years of imprisonment, we celebrate his life with joy 
and lock ourselves up for his freedom. An imprisonment that unites us, 
even if for only a moment, with Oscar and his years of unjust punishment 
in solitary confinement, with the years of not seeing his closest 
family, his years of missing embraces, the years --- which are gone 
forever --- of shared memories with family and friends, the years during 
which Oscar has been gone from the great house of his homeland Puerto 
Rico.").

80."Diez alcaldes y un centenar de personalidades irán presos por la 
excarcelación de Oscar López Rivera, /80GRADOS/, May 28, 2013,

http://www.80grados.net/diez-alcaldes-y-un-centenar-de-personalidades-iran-presos-por-la-excarcelacion-de-oscar-lopez-rivera; 
Diez alcaldes presos por la excarcelación de Oscar López Rivera

/El Periódico/, May 29, 2013,

http://www.elperiodicopr.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3244:diez-alcaldes-presos-por-la-excarcelacion-de-oscar-lopez-rivera&catid=69:noticias&Itemid=124.

81.See, e.g., Daniel Rivera Vargas, "Obispo Rubén González se une a 
pedido de excarcelación de Oscar López," /Primera Hora/, May 29, 2013,

http://www.primerahora.com/noticias/puerto-rico/nota/obisporubengonzalezseuneapedidodeexcarcelaciondeoscarlopez-925013/; 
Daniel Rivera Vargas, Alex Figueroa Cancel, Gerardo Cordero, Darisabel 
Texidor Guadalupe and Daileen Joan Rodriguez, "Figuras públicas 
continúan encarcelándose por Oscar López Rivera" Abogan por la 
liberación del preso político durante manifestación de 24 horas," /El 
Nuevo Día/, May 29, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/maspresosporlaexcarcelaciondeoscarlopezrivera-1521005.html#.UaYZKMmCAWA.facebook 
("Another temporary prisoner in San Juan was Catholic priest Ángel Darío 
Carrero, head of the Franciscan Order in Puerto Rio and the Caribbean. 
Upon entering the cell, the priest layed down on the floor in a 
reflective state and prayed.").

82.Daniel Rivera Vargas, Alex Figueroa Cancel, Gerardo Cordero, 
Darisabel Texidor Guadalupe and Daileen Joan Rodriguez, "Figuras 
públicas continúan encarcelándose por Oscar López Rivera" Abogan por la 
liberación del preso político durante manifestación de 24 horas," /El 
Nuevo Día/, May 29, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/maspresosporlaexcarcelaciondeoscarlopezrivera-1521005.html#.UaYZKMmCAWA.facebook 
(former major league baseball player Carlos Delgado wrote on the wall of 
the cell, "I can only imagine what an incredible amount of mental 
strength and courage you [Oscar] have.")

83."Artistas cierran filas por excarcelación Oscar López 
Rivera,"/Fundación Nacional para la Cultura Popular/, May 30, 2013,

http://www.prpop.org/noticias/may2013/artistas-cierran-filas-por-excarcelacion-de-oscar-lopez-rivera-5302013-1.shtml.

84.Gerardo Cordero, "Conmovida la hija de Oscar López por apoyo al 
evento '32 x Oscar'," /Primera Hora/, May 29, 2013,

http://www.primerahora.com/noticias/puerto-rico/nota/conmovidalahijadeoscarlopezporapoyoalevento32xoscar-925065/.

85.InterNews Service, "Senado en PR por liberación de López," /El 
Diario/La Prensa/, June 1, 2013,

http://www.eldiariony.com/noticiasnuestros-paises/article/20130601/Senado-en-PR-por-liberacion-de-Lopez.

86."Oscar López Rivera: After 32 Years in Prison, Calls Grow for Release 
of Puerto Rican Activist," /Democracy Now/, May 31, 2013, 
http://www.democracynow.org/2013/5/31/oscar_lpez_rivera_after_32_years; 
"Archbishop Desmond Tutu on Oscar López Rivera," 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HYf7AWkaV3I; "Nobel Peace Laureate 
Mairead Corrigan Maguire on Oscar López Rivera," 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ptWv4IzC4Q; "Nobel Peace Laureate and 
Past President of East Timor José Ramos-Horta," 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k-Dck0gVZrc.

87.See, e.g., Anthony Moujaes, "UCC officers to visit political 
prisoner," /UCC News/, August 2, 2012, 
http://www.ucc.org/news/ucc-officers-to-visit.html; "Encarcelamiento 
Simbólico," Confederación Latinoamericana y Caribeña de Religiosos y 
Religiosas, May 21, 2013,

http://www.clar.org/clar/index.php?module=Contenido&func=viewpub&tid=2&pid=650.

88.See, e,g., InterNews Service, "Foro Sao Paulo apoya independencia 
Puerto Rico y excarcelación Oscar López Rivera y rechaza plebiscito,"/ 
Claridad/, July 6, 2012,

http://www.claridadpuertorico.com/content.html?news=5DA005AC003E3A8229F8A456BEB47452.

89.See, e.g., "García Padilla se une petición de excarcelación de Oscar 
López Rivera: Figuras públicas se encierran en celdas en protesta, /El 
Nuevo Día/, May 29, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/garciapadillaseunepeticiondeexcarcelaciondeoscarlopezrivera-1521025.html 
(the governor of Puerto Rico); Cándida Cotto, "Crece apoyo a reclamo de 
libertad para Oscar López Rivera," /Claridad/, December 11, 2012,

http://www.claridadpuertorico.com/content.html?news=78DCECF6C444C7EA431B541D71FFB492 
(president of Puerto Rico Senate, many mayors, and president of Mayor's 
Association).

90.See, e.g., "Médicos cirujanos piden libertad de Oscar López," 
/NotiCel/, July 3, 2012, 
http://www.claridadpuertorico.com/content.html?news=4DFBB4C19379692964AB3D3BD8D94526.

91.See, e.g., Cándida Cotto, "FEDECOOP apoya excarcelación Oscar," 
/Claridad/, May 14, 2013,

http://www.claridadpuertorico.com/content.html?news=670F0905B2C9E1921EACC95D63E74170.

92."Procurador del veterano pide liberación de Oscar López:El licenciado 
Agustín Montañez Allman le envió una carta al presidente Obama en la que 
le pide considere el servicio militar y los logros de López Rivera en la 
milicia," /El Nuevo Día/, June 4, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/procuradordelveteranopideliberaciondeoscarlopez-1525012.html.

93.Patricia Vargas Casiano, "'Quiero volar': La reina ya se ve 
desplazándose por el escenario y alcanzando la segunda corona de Miss 
Mundo para Puerto Rico, /El Nuevo Día/, June 2, 2013, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/quierovolar-1523099.html.

94."Tito Kayak celebró su cumpleaños remando: El activista cumplió 54 
años en las aguas caribeñas," /El Nuevo Día/, July 24, 2012, 
http://www.elnuevodia.com/titokayakcelebrosucumpleanosremando-1307841.html.

95."Líderes internacionales y puertorriqueños se reúnen en San Juan en 
Encuentro de Derechos Humanos," /Claridad/, December 5, 2012, 
http://www.claridadpuertorico.com/content.html?news=4213BB58B400D6C533CA50BEB9D5C9DB; 
Rebecca Banuchi, "Políticos se unen para pedir excarcelación de Oscar 
López Rivera: El boricua ha estado preso durante 31 años," /El Nuevo 
Día/, December 9, 2012,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/politicosseunenparapedirexcarcelaciondeoscarlopezrivera-1404111.html.

96.InterNews Service, "Del 21 al 24 febrero Festival de Apoyo a Claridad 
dedicado a Oscar López Rivera," /Claridad,/ February 20, 2013 
http://www.claridadpuertorico.com/content.html?news=AE438A98DD8FDFF90EF70A9501215F77; 
Patricia Rivera Polanco, "Festival de CLARIDAD: Por la excacerlación de 
Oscar," /Claridad/, February 25, 2013,

http://www.claridadpuertorico.com/content.html?news=B4F1B9EAD6C96180EDA408BAA6B56566.

97.See, e.g., InterNews Service, "Oscar López: 'Antesala a la libertad': 
Reabre la sala San Juan Bautista con exposición de Óscar López 'Antesala 
a la libertad,'" /WAPA Television/, May 27, 2013,

http://www.wapa.tv/noticias/entretenimiento/oscar-lopez---antesala-a-la-libertad-_20130527154718.html.

98.See, e.g., "Un mural por Oscar,", April 21, 2013, 
http://www.otropuertoricoesposible.org/2013/04/un-mural-por-oscar.html.

99."Carmen Yulín le dedica su triunfo a Oscar López," /Claridad/, 
November 14, 2012, 
http://www.claridadpuertorico.com/content.html?news=D528EAC0C7F025719D68A15D4293AB2C.

100.José A. Delgado, "García Padilla sobre Oscar López," /El Nuevo Día/, 
June 12, 2013,

http://www.elnuevodia.com/blog-garcia_padilla_sobre_oscar_lopez-1529826.html.

101."Sánchez Betances confía que cambie la situación del preso Oscar 
López: El secretario de Justicia de Estados Unidos, Eric Holder, dice 
que no es irrazonable la excarcelación Oscar López, /METRO.PR,/ June 13, 
2013,

http://www.metro.pr/locales/sanchez-betances-confia-que-cambie-la-situacion-del-preso-oscar-lopez/pGXmfm!aaORunstFOUtU/.

102."Senado en PR por liberación de López," /El Diario/La Prensa/, June 
1, 2013,

http://www.eldiariony.com/noticiasnuestros-paises/article/20130601/Senado-en-PR-por-liberacion-de-Lopez.

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