[News] The Road to Zelaya’s Return: Money, Guns and Social Movements in Honduras

Anti-Imperialist News news at freedomarchives.org
Mon Sep 21 17:11:02 EDT 2009


The Road to Zelaya’s Return: Money, Guns and Social Movements in Honduras

http://upsidedownworld.org/main/content/view/2117/1/
Written by Benjamin Dangl
Monday, 21 September 2009
Image
Nearly three months after being overthrown by a 
violent military coup, Honduran president Manuel 
Zelaya has returned to Honduras. "I am here in 
Tegucigalpa. I am here for the restoration of 
democracy, to call for dialogue," he told 
reporters. The embattled road to his return 
tested regional diplomacy, challenged Washington 
and galvanized Honduran social movements.

During a recent beach-side interview, with 
tropical breezes blowing along a sandy shore in 
the background, Honduran coup leader Roberto 
Michelleti told a Fox News reporter, “This is a 
quiet country, and a happy country.”(1) However, 
since Michelleti took over on June 28, Honduras 
been anything but quiet and content.

Michelleti’s de-facto regime has ruled the 
country with an iron fist while popular movements 
for democracy have gained steam with nearly 
constant strikes, road blockades and massive 
street protests. The coup inspired a movement 
that is now seeking more than just the 
reinstatement of Zelaya, but the transformation 
of the country through a new constitution. 
Michelleti says presidential elections in 
November will proceed as planned, though few 
Hondurans, governments and international 
institutions say they will recognize the results 
given the violent situation in the country.

At least 11 anti-coup activists have been killed 
since Zelaya was ousted.(2) Following the coup, 
approximately 1,500 people have been jailed for 
political purposes, and many Zelaya supporters 
have been beaten.(3) Via Campesina offices have 
been attacked, and the Feminists of Honduras in 
Resistance said that there have been 19 
documented cases of rape by police officers since 
the coup took place.(4) The newspaper El Tiempo 
reported that armed groups in Colombia have been 
recruiting demobilized paramilitaries for 
mercenary work in Honduras. Honduras business 
leaders are hiring these paramilitaries for their own private security.(5)

Though Zelaya was a relatively moderate 
president, his policies challenged the elite 
enough to inspire a right wing coup. While in 
office, he passed a 60% increase in minimum wage, 
bringing income up from around $6 a day to $9.60 
a day.(6) Zelaya also gave subsidies to small 
farmers, cut bank interest rates and reduced 
poverty.(7) Salvador Zuniga, a leader of the 
Civic Council of Popular and Indigenous 
Organizations of Honduras (COPINH) said, "One of 
the things that provoked the coup d'etat was that 
the president accepted a petition from the 
feminist movement regarding the day-after pill. 
Opus Dei mobilized, the fundamentalist 
evangelical churches mobilized, along with all the reactionary groups."(8)

“Maybe he made mistakes,” Honduran school teacher 
Hedme Castro said of Zelaya, “but he always erred 
on the side of the poor. That is why they will 
fight to the end for him.” She continued, “This 
is not about President Zelaya. This is about my 
country. Many people gave their lives so that we 
could have a democracy. And we cannot let a group 
of elites take that away.”(9)

Ignoring the relevance of the Organization of 
American States, US Secretary of State Hillary 
Clinton called on Zelaya and Michelleti to meet 
with Costa Rican President Oscar Arias to work 
out a solution to the crisis. Many believe 
Clinton made the move to impose conditions on 
Zelaya’s return and kill time as the November 
elections neared. Zelaya has accepted Arias’ 
proposed solution, which entails his return to 
the presidency with limited powers, plus amnesty 
for those who have committed political crimes in 
the country. Micheletti rejected the Arias’ solution.(10)

While repression of anti-coup activists 
increases, so does the movement for democracy in 
Honduras. This broad coalition of activists has 
the support of many of the governments in the 
hemisphere, and has the backing of the country’s 
1982 constitution, which explains, "No one owes 
obedience to a government which usurps power nor 
those who assume public functions or employment 
through the use of arms.... The people [of this 
country] have the right to recur to insurrection 
in defense of constitutional order."(11) This 
insurrection is taking place right now.

Voices of the Resistance in Honduras

Protests, strikes and road blockades have been 
going on in the country almost daily since Zelaya 
was ousted. Many of the interviews with activists 
participating in these protests offer insight 
into the relationship between Zelaya and the 
movement, and what might lie ahead for the country.

"This struggle is peaceful, organized, and is not 
getting desperate. The coup leaders are getting 
desperate­they haven't been able to govern a 
single day in tranquility and we will defeat 
them," said Israel Salinas, a leader of the 
National Front Against the Coup in Honduras and 
member of the Unified Confederation of Honduran Workers.(12)

Honduran women’s right activist Marielena spoke 
of the current reality under the Michelleti 
regime, "Today's not the same as the 80s because 
there's a popular movement that the coup leaders 
never imagined 
 What Zelaya has done is 
symbolize the popular discontent accumulated over the years."(13)

-

Bertha Cáceres, a leader of COPINH, the Front 
Against the Coup, and a mother of four children, 
spoke of the importance of the constituent 
assembly to rewrite the country’s constitution. 
It was partly this push for constitutional 
reform, which Zelaya backed along with broad 
support from the Honduran people, that led to the 
coup. When speaking of the assembly, Cáceres 
says, "For the first time we would be able to 
establish a precedent for the emancipation of 
women, to begin to break these forms of 
domination. The current constitution never 
mentions women, not once, so to establish our 
human rights, our reproductive, sexual, 
political, social, and economic rights as women 
would be to really confront this system of domination."(14)

Cáceres discussed the work of the women’s 
movement for the new constitution “to dismantle 
this belief that others have the right to make 
decisions about our bodies, to start guaranteeing 
that women are the owners and have autonomous 
rights to their bodies. It is a political act; a 
political proposal. 
 The ability to have and 
guarantee access to land, territories, cultures, 
health, education, art, dignified and decent 
employment for women, and many other things, are 
elements that we must guarantee in this process 
of a new constitutional assembly that leads to a 
real process of liberation.”(15)

Gilberto Rios, from the Front Against the Coup 
spoke of how the coup has galvanized a broad 
movement in the country. “In the past, when we 
called for people to protest in the streets, they 
came out, but not in the same numbers as what is 
happening now. In recent days, we have had 
protests that start in the morning and stay in 
the streets all day. At night, there are convoys 
of cars in major cities. It shows that the 
workers are participating, and the middle class 
is also coming out.” He also affirmed that the 
movement is entirely grassroots. “The leftist 
political parties recognize they do not control 
any part of the popular movement.”(16)

Leticia Salomón, the Director of Scientific 
Research for the National Autonomous University 
of Honduras said, “It doesn't matter who wins the 
elections in November, the next government will 
have to deal with this important social force if 
it hopes to even minimally govern the country.”(17)

World Isolates Coup Regime

At the North American Leaders’ Summit in Mexico 
in August, President Barack Obama said "critics 
who say that the United States has not intervened 
enough in Honduras are the same people who say 
that we're always intervening and the Yankees 
need to get out of Latin America. You can't have 
it both ways."(18) But as New York University 
history professor and author Greg Grandin points 
out, all many are asking is for the US to act 
multilaterally with the OAS – it did the opposite 
by defying the OAS and appointing Arias as the 
mediator between Michelleti and Zelaya. In 
addition, through its financial support to the 
regime, the US has been far from taking a neutral 
stance.(19) Indeed, Washington has been acting 
unilaterally since the beginning by not refusing 
to follow the lead of other nations in putting 
more pressure on the coup government.(20)

-

However, US State Department Spokesman Ian Kelly 
said on September 3rd that “At this moment, we 
would not be able to support the outcome of the 
[November] elections [in Honduras].”(21) Zelaya 
was happy to hear this news from Washington. He 
said the move "puts the United States in line 
with Latin America, because it was not said before."(22)

In addition to the US, the EU, the OAS, union 
leaders in Honduras and members of the Front 
Against the Coup say they will not recognize the 
election results.(23) Honduras business owners 
have devised their own plan to increase voting; 
they’ll be giving discounts to everyone who casts 
a ballot and then comes into their business with 
ink on their fingers, showing that they’ve voted.(24)

The US State Department did end up revoking the 
US visas of over a dozen officials in the coup 
government, including Michelleti.(25) But the US 
could go further by blocking members of the regime from using US banks.(26)

Various levels of funding to Honduras from the US 
and other governments and institutions have been 
cut since the coup took place. “On Sept. 3, the 
State Department announced the termination of $33 
million dollars, including $11 million in 
Millennium Challenge Funds and approximately $22 
million in State Department funds,” according to 
Latin American analyst Laura Carlsen. The IMF 
said that due to the coup, Honduras won’t have 
access to $150 million in assistance.(27) A 
spokesperson from the IMF said the institution 
cut off all aid to the country three days after the coup.(28)

On July 2, the US cut the following spending: 
$1.9 million from the US Agency for International 
Development (USAID) and $16.5 million in military 
funding.(29) The Inter-American Development Bank, 
and the Central American Bank of Economic 
Integration all cut lending to the Honduran 
government.(30) The UN has cut off various forms 
of aid to Honduras.(31) In addition, the EU froze 
$92 million in aid and the OAS froze aid and 
began trade blocks against the coup government.(32)

However, “For legalistic reasons, [the US State 
Department] continued to fall short of calling 
the coup a ‘military’ coup,” explained Adam 
Isacson of the Center for International Policy. 
“This means that some anti-poverty aid is being 
maintained, soldiers whose training was already 
paid for won't be sent back to Honduras, and 
State can flexibly restore aid once democracy returns.”(33)

“State Department officials closed the door on 
determining legally that a military coup took 
place in Honduras and requiring application of 
Section 7008 of the Foreign Operations law,” 
Carlsen explained. “They assured reporters that 
all funds that could be suspended under Section 
7008 have now been suspended 
 The State 
Department has admitted that $70 million in 
aid­over twice the amount suspended­will still flow to the coup.”(34)

The Kansas City-based Cross-Border Network went 
on a delegation to Honduras after the coup and 
reported that "We met the U.S Ambassador who 
agreed it was a military coup even though the 
State Department won't call it that, thus 
invoking the law requiring cut off of all remaining aid."(35)

Declaring the coup a coup, according to Grandin, 
“would automatically trigger certain cutoffs, 
financial cutoffs, it also would have to be 
certified by Congress. And that’s a fight that I 
think Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton don’t 
want, because the Republicans, led by Connie Mack 
and other foreign policy conservatives, regime 
change conservatives, Republicans, have seized on 
this issue to basically try to link Obama with 
Hugo Chavez and the Latin American left. And they 
certainly don’t want to kick it into Congress, 
where it’ll be debated, because to call it a coup 
would have to be certified by Congress.”(36)

-

But the Obama administration needs to understand 
that what’s at stake is more important than 
winning a political fight in Washington. The 
future of a nation, and perhaps the entire region, hangs in the balance.

"The true significance of the coup, in one of the 
poorest and weakest countries in the hemisphere 
... lies in the test it poses to the 
inter-American system," says Jorge Heine of the 
Balsillie School of International Affairs. "If 
the latter cannot succeed in restoring democracy 
in Honduras, it cannot do so anywhere. The 
message would thus be crystal clear: coup-makers can act with impunity."(37)

Washington’s Ties to the Coup

Washington has played a bloody role in Central 
America for years and this coup carries on that 
legacy while setting some new precedents. 
Fernando "Billy" Joya has returned to the stage 
in Honduras as Michelleti’s security advisor 
after serving in Battalion 316 in the 1980s, 
according to Grandin. Battalion 316 was a 
paramilitary unit that disappeared hundreds of 
people.(38) Joya was trained in Chile under the 
Pinochet dictatorship by Chilean police, and his 
Battalion 316 was created by the CIA to apply the 
repressive techniques used against “subversives” in Argentina and Chile.(39)

In 1981, John Negroponte arrived in Honduras as 
the US ambassador. While there, the military 
budget in the country rose from $3.6 million in 
1981 to $77.8 million in 1985 “when his mission 
was completed­having created the Contras in 
Nicaragua and protected the El Salvadoran 
dictatorship,” according to Honduras-based 
reporter Dick Emanuelsson.(40) Negroponte met 
with Michelleti before the June 28 coup on a trip 
made primarily to convince Zelaya not to 
transform a US airbase in Palmerola, Honduras 
into an airport for civilians.(41)

Venezuelan Robert Carmona-Borjas has also joined 
the coup government in Honduras. He was involved 
in the attempted coup against President Hugo 
Chavez in Venezuela in 2002. Carmona-Borjas’ 
Arcadio Foundation began a media campaign against Zelaya in 2007.(42)

-

Lanny Davis, a lawyer to Bill Clinton and 
campaign advisor to Hillary Clinton, has been 
lobbying in Washington for Honduran coup leaders 
and elites. Some of the businesses that support 
the coup in Honduras that Davis is representing 
in DC are US companies such as Russell, Fruit of 
the Loom and Hanes – all of which have benefited 
from the low wages, neoliberal policies and 
crackdowns on union rights in the country.(43) 
Davis recently testified before Congress on 
behalf of the coup leaders and backers, and has 
helped to get media on the coup’s side.(44)

The week before the coup, former Assistant 
Secretary of State for Western Hemispheric 
Affairs Thomas Shannon and Deputy Assistant 
Secretary of State Craig Kelly met with Honduran 
figures that ended up participating in the 
coup.(45) Days before the coup took place, John 
McCain and leaders from the International 
Republican Institute, invited future leaders of 
the coup to meetings in Washington.(46)

US businesses also hold a considerable amount of 
weight in the country: in 2006, 70% of exports 
from Honduras went to the US, and 52% of imports 
were from the US. That same year, US investments 
in the country totaled more than $568 million, 
two thirds of foreign investment.(47)

A Movement Larger Than Zelaya

Just as the coup may change the geopolitical 
landscape of the region, the grassroots fervor in 
Honduras will likely alter the country forever. 
And that might be Michelleti’s legacy – that in 
ousting a moderate president, he inspired a revolution.

When trying to break the political impasse 
Honduras finds itself in, Zelaya admits that much 
depends on the anti-coup movement of Honduras. 
"This movement is now very strong. It can never be destroyed," he said.(48)

The coup leaders “were wrong here, they 
miscalculated,” Honduran activist Bertha Cáceres 
of the Front Against the Coup and COPINH 
explained. “They said it would be two days of 
resistance, and they were wrong. This population 
has demonstrated that we are capable of 
 a much longer struggle.”(49)

Gilberto Rios, from the Front Against the Coup, 
spoke of the similarities this coup has to others 
throughout the last century that still haunt the 
region: “The oligarchy made the coup with an old 
manual, but the people have changed and the world has changed.”(50)

-

***

Benjamin Dangl is the author of the forthcoming 
book, Dancing with Dynamite: Social Movements and 
States in Latin America, (AK Press, 2010). He 
edits TowardFreedom.com, a progressive 
perspective on world events and 
UpsideDownWorld.org, a website on activism and 
politics in Latin America. Email 
Bendangl(at)gmail(dot)com. Photo from Indymedia.org

Notes:



1. Interview with Roberto Michelleti, Fox News, 
(September 17, 2009), 
<http://www.foxnews.com/search-results/m/26446742/roberto-micheletti-pt-1.htm#q=micheletti>http://www.foxnews.com/search-results/m/26446742/roberto-micheletti-pt-1.htm#q=micheletti.

2. Greg Grandin, “The Battle for Honduras and the 
Region,” The Nation, (August 12, 2009), 
<http://www.thenation.com/doc/20090831/grandin/print>http://www.thenation.com/doc/20090831/grandin/print.

3. Daniel Luban, “US-Honduras: State Dept 
Condemns ‘Coup d'Etat’, Curtails Aid,” IPS News, 
(September 3, 2009), 
<http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=48323>http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=48323.

4. “Group Says Honduran Cops on Rape Spree Since 
Coup,” Latin American Herald Tribune, 
<http://www.laht.com/article.asp?ArticleId=341851&CategoryId=23558>http://www.laht.com/article.asp?ArticleId=341851&CategoryId=23558

5. Unidad Investigativa, “Estarían reclutando ex 
paramilitares para que viajen como mercenarios a 
Honduras,” El Tiempo, 
<http://www.eltiempo.com/colombia/justicia/estarian-reclutando-ex-paramilitares-para-que-viajen-como-mercenarios-a-honduras_6086547-1>http://www.eltiempo.com/colombia/justicia/estarian-reclutando-ex-paramilitares-para-que-viajen-como-mercenarios-a-honduras_6086547-1

6. Ginger Thompson, “President’s Ouster 
Highlights a Divide in Honduras,” The New York 
Times, (August 8, 2009), 
<http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/09/world/americas/09honduras.html?pagewanted=print>http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/09/world/americas/09honduras.html?pagewanted=print

7. Tom Hayden, “Zelaya Speaks,” The Nation, 
(September 4, 2009), 
<http://www.thenation.com/doc/20090921/hayden_zelaya>http://www.thenation.com/doc/20090921/hayden_zelaya

8. Laura Carlsen, “Coup Catalyzes Honduran 
Women’s Movement,” America Program, (August 20, 
2009) 
<http://americas.irc-online.org/am/6369>http://americas.irc-online.org/am/6369

9. Ginger Thompson, “President’s Ouster 
Highlights a Divide in Honduras,” The New York 
Times, (August 8, 2009), 
<http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/09/world/americas/09honduras.html?pagewanted=print>http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/09/world/americas/09honduras.html?pagewanted=print

10. Juan Ramón Durán, “Honduras: Vote to Go Ahead 
Despite Int'l Refusal to Recognise,” IPS News, 
(September 9, 2009), 
<http://www.ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=48385>http://www.ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=48385

11. Jennifer Moore, “Honduras’ Historic Two 
Months,” América Latina en Movimiento, (August 
28,. 2009) 
<http://alainet.org/active/32686%C3%A3>http://alainet.org/active/32686ã

12. Dick Emanuelsson, “Military Forces Sow Terror 
and Fear in Honduras,“ Americas Program, (August 
13, 2009), 
<http://americas.irc-online.org/am/6354>http://americas.irc-online.org/am/6354

13. Laura Carlsen, “Coup Catalyzes Honduran 
Women’s Movement,” America Program, (August 20, 
2009) 
<http://americas.irc-online.org/am/6369>http://americas.irc-online.org/am/6369

14. Ibid.

15. Laura Carlsen and Sara Lovera, “Honduran 
Constitutional Assembly Would Be a Step Toward 
the Emancipation of Women,” Americas Program, 
(August 19, 2009), 
<http://americas.irc-online.org/am/6392>http://americas.irc-online.org/am/6392

16. Kiraz Janicke and Federico Fuentes, “Honduras 
­ Resistance leader: US is behind the coup,” 
Green Left Weekly, (September 7, 2009), 
<http://www.greenleft.org.au/2009/809/41602>http://www.greenleft.org.au/2009/809/41602

17. Jennifer Moore, “National opposition to coup 
becomes a social force,” América Latina en 
Movimiento, (September 12, 2009), 
<http://alainet.org/active/32978&lang=en>http://alainet.org/active/32978&lang=en

18. Cheryl W. Thompson and William Booth, “Obama 
Vows to Focus on Borders,” Washington Post, 
(August 11, 2009), 
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/08/10/AR2009081001797.html

19. Greg Grandin, “The Battle for Honduras and 
the Region,” The Nation, (August 12, 2009), 
<http://www.thenation.com/doc/20090831/grandin/print>http://www.thenation.com/doc/20090831/grandin/print.

20. Amy Oyler, “The Resurgence of US 
Interventionism in Latin America,” Z 
Communications, (August 31, 2009), 
http://www.zcommunications.org/znet/viewArticle/22466

21. Ian Kelly, “Termination of Assistance and 
Other Measures Affecting the De Facto Regime in 
Honduras,” US Department of State, (September 3, 
2009), 
<http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2009/sept/128608.htm>http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2009/sept/128608.htm

22. Tom Hayden, “Zelaya’s Coup,” The Nation, 
(September 3, 2009), 
<http://www.thenation.com/doc/20090921/hayden_web>http://www.thenation.com/doc/20090921/hayden_web

23. Juan Ramón Durán, “Honduras: Vote to Go Ahead 
Despite Int'l Refusal to Recognise,” IPS News, 
(September 9, 2009), 
<http://www.ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=48385>http://www.ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=48385

24.  “Honduran Resistance Boycotts Elections,” 
Weekly News Update on the Americas, (September 
13, 2009), 
http://weeklynewsupdate.blogspot.com/2009/09/wnu-1004-honduran-resistance-boycotts.html

25.  “State Dept. Revokes Visa of Leader of 
Honduran Coup Government,” Democracy Now!, 
,(September 14, 2009), 
<http://www.democracynow.org/2009/9/14/headlines#7>http://www.democracynow.org/2009/9/14/headlines#7

26.  “US stops issuing visas in Honduras,” Al 
Jazeera, (August 26, 2009), 
<http://english.aljazeera.net/news/americas/2009/08/200982601353122962.html>http://english.aljazeera.net/news/americas/2009/08/200982601353122962.html

27. Jorge Heine, “It's time for Canada to take a 
strong stand on Honduras,” The Globe and Mail, 
(September 18, 2009), 
<http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/opinions/its-time-for-canada-to-take-a-strong-stand-on-honduras/article1287401/>http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/opinions/its-time-for-canada-to-take-a-strong-stand-on-honduras/article1287401/

28.  “Honduran Resistance Boycotts Elections,” 
Weekly News Update on the Americas, (September 
13, 2009), 
http://weeklynewsupdate.blogspot.com/2009/09/wnu-1004-honduran-resistance-boycotts.html

29. Ibid.

30. Mark Weisbrot, “IMF: Stop Funding Honduras,” 
The Guardian Unlimited, (September 3, 
2009), 
<http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/2009/sep/03/imf-honduras-aid-zelaya>http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/2009/sep/03/imf-honduras-aid-zelaya

31.  “EU threatens further sanctions on 
Honduras,” Reuters, (September 15, 2009), 
<http://www.reuters.com/article/homepageCrisis/idUSLF361596._CH_.2400>http://www.reuters.com/article/homepageCrisis/idUSLF361596._CH_.2400

32. Amy Oyler, “The Resurgence of US 
Interventionism in Latin America,” Z 
Communications, (August 31, 2009), 
http://www.zcommunications.org/znet/viewArticle/22466

33. Adam Isacson, “Another Baby Step on 
Honduras,” Huffington Post, (September 3, 2009), 
<http://www.huffingtonpost.com/adam-isacson/another-baby-step-on-hond_b_276972.html>http://www.huffingtonpost.com/adam-isacson/another-baby-step-on-hond_b_276972.html

34. Laura Carlsen, Americas MexicoBlog, “Honduran 
Coup Squeezed From Above and Below­But is it 
Enough to Restore Democracy?,” (September 10, 
2009), 
<http://americasmexico.blogspot.com/2009/09/honduran-coup-squeezed-from-above-and.html>http://americasmexico.blogspot.com/2009/09/honduran-coup-squeezed-from-above-and.html 


35. OneWorld, “US Chided for Aiding Honduras 
Despite Coup,” Common Dreams, (September 9, 
2009), 
<http://www.commondreams.org/print/46772>http://www.commondreams.org/print/46772

36.  “US Cuts More Aid to Honduras as Zelaya 
Meets Clinton in Washington,” Democracy Now!, 
(September 4, 2009), 
<http://www.democracynow.org/2009/9/4/us_cuts_more_aid_to_honduras>http://www.democracynow.org/2009/9/4/us_cuts_more_aid_to_honduras

37. Olivia Ward, “Raising the stakes in 
Honduras,” The Star, (September 6, 2009), 
<http://www.thestar.com/printArticle/691633>http://www.thestar.com/printArticle/691633

38. Greg Grandin, “The Battle for Honduras and 
the Region,” The Nation, (August 12, 2009), 
<http://www.thenation.com/doc/20090831/grandin/print>http://www.thenation.com/doc/20090831/grandin/print.

39. Dick Emanuelsson, “Honduras: The Frontline in 
the Battle for Democracy,” Americas Program, 
(August 10, 2009), 
<http://americas.irc-online.org/am/6337>http://americas.irc-online.org/am/6337

40. Ibid.

41. Michaela D'Ambrosio, “The Honduran Coup: Was 
it a Matter of Behind-the-Scenes Finagling by 
State Department Stonewallers?,” Council on 
Hemispheric Affairs, (September 16, 2009), 
<http://www.coha.org/2009/09/the-honduran-coup-was-it-a-matter-of-behind-the-scenes-finagling-by-state-department-stonewallers/>http://www.coha.org/2009/09/the-honduran-coup-was-it-a-matter-of-behind-the-scenes-finagling-by-state-department-stonewallers/

42. Greg Grandin, “The Battle for Honduras and 
the Region,” The Nation, (August 12, 2009), 
<http://www.thenation.com/doc/20090831/grandin/print>http://www.thenation.com/doc/20090831/grandin/print.

43. Amy Oyler, “The Resurgence of US 
Interventionism in Latin America,” Z 
Communications, (August 31, 2009), 
http://www.zcommunications.org/znet/viewArticle/22466

44. Mark Weisbrot, “Who’s in charge of US foreign 
policy?” The Guardian Unlimited, (July 16, 2009) 
<http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/2009/jul/16/honduras-coup-obama-clinton/print>http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/2009/jul/16/honduras-coup-obama-clinton/print

45. Michaela D'Ambrosio, “The Honduran Coup: Was 
it a Matter of Behind-the-Scenes Finagling by 
State Department Stonewallers?,” Council on 
Hemispheric Affairs, (September 16, 2009), 
<http://www.coha.org/2009/09/the-honduran-coup-was-it-a-matter-of-behind-the-scenes-finagling-by-state-department-stonewallers/>http://www.coha.org/2009/09/the-honduran-coup-was-it-a-matter-of-behind-the-scenes-finagling-by-state-department-stonewallers/

46. Amy Oyler, “The Resurgence of US 
Interventionism in Latin America,” Z 
Communications, (August 31, 2009), 
http://www.zcommunications.org/znet/viewArticle/22466

47. Amy Oyler, “The Resurgence of US 
Interventionism in Latin America,” Z 
Communications, (August 31, 2009), 
http://www.zcommunications.org/znet/viewArticle/22466

48. Tom Hayden, “Zelaya Speaks,” The Nation, 
(September 4, 2009), 
<http://www.thenation.com/doc/20090921/hayden_zelaya>http://www.thenation.com/doc/20090921/hayden_zelaya

49. Laura Carlsen and Sara Lovera, “Honduran 
Constitutional Assembly Would Be a Step Toward 
the Emancipation of Women,” Americas Program, 
(August 19, 2009), 
<http://americas.irc-online.org/am/6392>http://americas.irc-online.org/am/6392

50. Kiraz Janicke and Federico Fuentes, “Honduras 
­ Resistance leader: US is behind the coup,” 
Green Left Weekly, (September 7, 2009), 
<http://www.greenleft.org.au/2009/809/41602>http://www.greenleft.org.au/2009/809/41602




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