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      <div dir="ltr">Two articles follow.  Article from Think Progress
        highlights Theresa Martinez from Justice Now.<br>
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        <div><u><b>From the NY Times  <font size="-2"><br>
<a class="moz-txt-link-freetext" href="http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/18/us/number-of-women-in-jail-has-grown-far-faster-than-that-of-men-study-says.html?rref=collection%2Fbyline%2Ftimothy-williams&action=click&contentCollection=undefined&region=stream&module=stream_unit&version=latest&contentPlacement=1&pgtype=collection">http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/18/us/number-of-women-in-jail-has-grown-far-faster-than-that-of-men-study-says.html?rref=collection%2Fbyline%2Ftimothy-williams&action=click&contentCollection=undefined&region=stream&module=stream_unit&version=latest&contentPlacement=1&pgtype=collection</a></font></b></u><br>
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          <h1 itemprop="headline" id="headline" class="">Number of Women
            in Jail Has Grown Far Faster Than That of Men, Study Says</h1>
          <div id="story-meta-footer" class="">
            <p class=""><span class="" itemprop="author creator"
                itemscope="" itemtype="http://schema.org/Person">By <a
                  moz-do-not-send="true"
                  href="http://www.nytimes.com/by/timothy-williams"
                  title="More Articles by TIMOTHY WILLIAMS"><span
                    class="" itemprop="name">TIMOTHY WILLIAMS</span></a></span><time
                class="" datetime="2016-08-17T10:33:36-04:00"
                itemprop="dateModified"
                content="2016-08-17T10:33:36-04:00">   AUG. 17, 2016</time>
            </p>
          </div>
          <div class="">
            <div class="">
              <p class="">When <a moz-do-not-send="true"
                  href="https://www.vera.org/people/dolfinette-martin">Dolfinette
                  Martin</a> was convicted of shoplifting more than $700
                worth of clothes in Louisiana in 2005, she had five
                children, no money and an addiction to cocaine.</p>
              <p class="">Seven years later, in 2012, Ms. Martin became
                one of a growing number of impoverished women released
                from prisons and jails whose plight has been largely
                overlooked during continuing efforts to reverse mass
                incarceration, according to criminal justice experts.</p>
              <p class="">“That cycle of poverty — not a lot of
                resources, not a lot of jobs, the lack of education, you
                kind of give up,” said Ms. Martin, 46, who now works as
                an administrative assistant.</p>
              <p class="">On Wednesday, the <a moz-do-not-send="true"
                  href="https://www.vera.org/">Vera Institute of Justice</a>
                and a program called the <a moz-do-not-send="true"
                  href="http://www.safetyandjusticechallenge.org/">Safety
                  and Justice Challenge</a> <a moz-do-not-send="true"
href="http://www.safetyandjusticechallenge.org/overlooked-women-and-jails-report">released
                  a report</a> that found that the number of women in
                local jails in the United States was almost 14 times
                what it was in the 1970s, a far higher growth rate than
                for men, although there remain far fewer women than men
                in jails and prisons.</p>
              <p class="">The study found that the number of women held
                in the nation’s 3,200 municipal and county jails for
                misdemeanor crimes or who are awaiting trial or
                sentencing had increased significantly — to about
                110,000 in 2014 from fewer than 8,000 in 1970.</p>
              <p class="" id="story-continues-1">(Over all, the nation’s
                jail population increased to 745,000 in 2014 from
                157,000 in 1970.)</p>
              <p class="">Much of the increase in the number of jailed
                women occurred in counties with fewer than 250,000
                people, according to the study, places where just 1,700
                women had been incarcerated in 1970. By 2014, however,
                that number had surged to 51,600, the report said.</p>
              <p class="">And even as crime rates declined nationally,
                the trend toward jailing women in rural counties
                continued: Incarceration rates for women in sparsely
                populated counties rose to 140 per 100,000 in 2014 from
                79 per 100,000 in 2000, the study found. During the same
                period, incarceration rates for women in the nation’s
                largest counties decreased to 71 per 100,000 from 76 per
                100,000.</p>
              <p class="">“Once a rarity, women are now held in jails in
                nearly every county — a stark contrast to 1970, when
                almost three-quarters of counties held not a single
                woman in jail,” the report said.</p>
              <p class="">The counties with the highest rates of jailed
                women are nearly all rural and include Nevada County,
                Calif.; Floyd County, Ga.; and St. Charles Parish, La.
                Each has a population of fewer than 100,000 people but a
                <a moz-do-not-send="true"
                  href="http://trends.vera.org/#/incarceration-rates">rate
                  of incarceration</a> for women of more than 280 per
                100,000, according to the Vera Institute.</p>
              <p class="">Like Ms. Martin, 46, who was arrested on
                shoplifting charges 10 times and was held in jails and
                prisons throughout Louisiana from 1994 to her final
                arrest in 2005, the study found that a vast majority of
                the women are poor, African-American or Latino, and have
                drug or alcohol problems. About 80 percent have
                children.</p>
              <p class="">Most have been charged with low-level
                offenses, including drug or property crimes like
                shoplifting, but a growing number are in jail for
                violating parole or probation, for failed drug tests or
                for missing court-ordered appointments. Others are
                unable to make bail or pay court-mandated fees and
                fines, the report said.</p>
              <p class="">The trend echoes what has occurred in policing
                over the past two decades, as the police and prosecutors
                have focused on offenses that might have once been
                overlooked, even as rates for more serious crimes have
                declined, according to the Justice Department. The
                result, critics say, are overcrowded prisons and jails,
                many of them filled with nonviolent offenders.</p>
              <p class="">“As the focus on these smaller crimes has
                increased, women have been swept up into the system to
                an even greater extent than men,” said Elizabeth
                Swavola, one of the authors of the Vera report.</p>
              <p class="" id="story-continues-2">The study found that
                women accounted for 26 percent of total arrests in 2014,
                compared with 11 percent in 1960.</p>
              <p class="">And the most common offenses that led to
                arrests involved drugs.</p>
              <p class="">Between 1980 and 2009, the arrest rate for
                drug possession or use doubled for men but tripled for
                women, <a moz-do-not-send="true"
                  href="http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/aus8009.pdf">according
                  to the Bureau of Justice Statistics</a>.</p>
              <p class="">The troubles caused by the arrest of a woman
                responsible for supporting a family can sometimes never
                be undone, said Laurie R. Garduque, director for justice
                reform for the John D. and Catherine T. <a
                  moz-do-not-send="true"
href="http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/organizations/m/macarthur_john_d_and_catherine_t_foundation/index.html?inline=nyt-org"
                  title="More articles about John D and Catherine T
                  MacArthur Foundation" class="">MacArthur Foundation</a>,
                which funds the Safety and Justice Challenge, whose
                mission is to create fairer, more effective local
                justice systems.</p>
            </div>
          </div>
          <article id="story" class="">
            <div class="">
              <div class="">
                <p class="">“It has a cascading effect,” she said.</p>
                <p class="">During an interview, Ms. Martin said that
                  her children — ages 10 to 16 when she was last
                  arrested — had all once excelled in school, but that
                  they had lost their ability to focus during her
                  absences after the shoplifting arrests. None of her
                  five children, who were taken care of by one of Ms.
                  Martin’s nieces, graduated from high school, and her
                  eldest two were incarcerated for various periods, she
                  said.</p>
                <p class="">“I missed a lot of time,” said Ms. Martin,
                  who recently received her associate degree in business
                  office technology. “You live with a lot of regret, a
                  lot of guilt — tremendous guilt — when you have kids
                  in the street trying to survive.”</p>
                <p class=""><br>
                </p>
                <p class=""><b><u>From Think Progress</u></b><br>
                </p>
                <a moz-do-not-send="true"
href="https://thinkprogress.org/the-tragedy-of-being-a-woman-in-jail-904c6cb36974#.u3zqlnin0">https://thinkprogress.org/the-tragedy-of-being-a-woman-in-jail-904c6cb36974#.u3zqlnin0</a><br>
                <h3 name="c54b" id="c54b" class="">The Tragedy Of Being
                  A Woman In Jail</h3>
                <figure name="14f5" id="14f5" class=""></figure>
                <p name="a8d8" id="a8d8" class="">Theresa Martinez knows
                  all about how jail makes trauma worse.</p>
                <p name="ae00" id="ae00" class="">The 52-year-old Los
                  Angeles native was first locked up at the Sybil Brand
                  Institute for possession and sale of PCP in 1986.
                  Since then, she has been system-involved for more than
                  20 years, and done eight or nine stints at another
                  county jail in Lynwood, California. Every time she has
                  been thrown in jail, she has gone through severe
                  heroin withdrawal that has left her vomiting,
                  nauseous, and unable to walk to the bathroom in time
                  to relieve herself.</p>
                <p name="ca32" id="ca32" class="">“It’s horrible,” she
                  said in an interview with ThinkProgress. “[The guards]
                  have absolutely no understanding to it. They do not
                  care. You might soil your uniform that you have on and
                  need another one, and they just take their time to do
                  it.”</p>
                <p name="46aa" id="46aa" class="">At no point during
                  those periods of withdrawal did she receive help. And
                  as far as her overall jail experiences have gone, that
                  was just the tip of the iceberg.</p>
                <p name="868d" id="868d" class="">Martinez is no longer
                  locked up, but roughly 110,000 women are currently
                  doing in time in jails across the country — the
                  fastest growing correctional population. Thousands of
                  those women have experienced similar types of trauma
                  as Martinez.</p>
                <blockquote name="7faf" id="7faf" class="">“You go into
                  states of anger and states of depression.”</blockquote>
                <p name="2eb8" id="2eb8" class="">According to a <a
                    moz-do-not-send="true"
href="http://www.safetyandjusticechallenge.org/resource/overlooked-women-jails-era-reform/"
                    class="">new report</a> from the Vera Institute of
                  Justice and the Safety and Justice Challenge, there
                  are now 14 times more women in jail — most of whom are
                  nonviolent offenders — than there were in 1970, when
                  fewer than 8,000 were in jail on a given day. Back
                  then, roughly 75 percent of all the county jails had
                  no women in custody. Flash forward to today and women
                  are being held in almost all of them. The population
                  of female detainees in small county facilities is now
                  31 times larger than what it was in 1970, accounting
                  for approximately half of all women in jail today.</p>
                <p name="9e96" id="9e96" class="">Yet the jail system is
                  ill-equipped to accommodate the particular needs of
                  women in custody, and research about how they navigate
                  the system is scarce and decades-old. So despite
                  entering jail in record numbers, women remain an
                  invisible population.</p>
                <h4 name="d461" id="d461" class="">Unique experiences</h4>
                <p name="bc49" id="bc49" class="">Unlike prisons, which
                  are designed to hold people convicted of crimes and
                  sentenced to time behind bars, jails are designed to
                  hold pre-trial detainees who have been charged but
                  cannot afford bail. Jails are supposed to be a
                  temporary place for people to stay in custody, but
                  inmates who cannot pay to get out can languish in jail
                  for weeks, months, and sometimes years awaiting trial.</p>
                <p name="f00c" id="f00c" class="">In the new report,
                  Vera and the Safety and Justice Challenge concluded
                  that, at its core, the <a moz-do-not-send="true"
href="http://www.safetyandjusticechallenge.org/resource/overlooked-women-jails-era-reform/"
                    class="">jail system is not built for women</a> in
                  particular, because they arrive with more social,
                  economic, medical, and mental health challenges than
                  their male counterparts.</p>
                <blockquote name="1579" id="1579" class="">“There’s
                  nothing you can do. You can’t fight them.”</blockquote>
                <p name="62b1" id="62b1" class="">For instance, while 35
                  percent of men in jail report having a medical
                  condition, more than 50 percent of women have one.
                  Thirty-two percent of women in jail have serious
                  mental illness — two times more than the population of
                  men dealing with comparable mental health problems.</p>
                <p name="1f8e" id="1f8e" class="">The vast majority of
                  women have also experienced at least one form of
                  trauma. More than 75 percent are domestic violence
                  victims, and 86 percent are survivors of sexual
                  violence.</p>
                <p name="6ee0" id="6ee0" class="">Statistics show that
                  most of the women are low-level, nonviolent offenders
                  charged with drug, property, and public order
                  offenses. Even though they do not pose a danger to
                  society, they are locked away in jails that are likely
                  to exacerbate their trauma and make their medical and
                  mental health conditions worse.</p>
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