[Ppnews] SF police arrest African Americans at a much higher rate than other biggest cities.

Political Prisoner News ppnews at freedomarchives.org
Mon Dec 18 08:52:52 EST 2006

Range of explanations offered by experts, 
officials for S.F.'s disparity with other cities
- <mailto:ssward at sfchronicle.com>Susan Sward, Chronicle Staff Writer
Sunday, December 17, 2006

San Francisco police arrest African Americans for 
serious crime at a much higher rate than officers 
in California's other biggest cities.

Black people in San Francisco are arrested for 
felonies at nearly twice the rate they are in 
Sacramento. They are arrested at twice the rate 
of black people in Fresno, three times the rate 
in San Jose, Los Angeles, Long Beach and San 
Diego, and four times the rate in Oakland.

The disparity between San Francisco's black 
felony arrest rates and the seven other largest 
cities' -- measured by the number of African 
Americans arrested per 1,000 black residents -- 
is so large that many experts and civic leaders 
who reviewed the numbers said they are 
"disturbing" and require an investigation.

The numbers prompt several questions, all of 
which basically boil down to this: Is the high 
arrest rate of African Americans because of the 
way the San Francisco Police Department does its 
policing, or because of criminal activity within the community?

Mayor Gavin Newsom and Police Chief Heather Fong 
said they do not think the department is going 
after African Americans in an unfair manner. They 
also said they were consulting experts to try to 
learn why the arrest numbers look the way they do.

Newsom said he found the numbers "outrageous'' 
but was not shocked by them because of the time 
he has spent attempting to tackle the root causes of poverty.

"There is no question in my mind that this 
deserves immediate attention and investigation, 
and I will be doing that,'' Newsom said. He said 
the investigation would be conducted by a 
University of South Florida criminologist, Lorie 
Fridell, who will "do aggressive data analysis'' 
of the arrest numbers and report back to him and Fong in about two months.

While Fong said the arrest numbers merit review, 
she suggested that the disparity exists in part 
because the perception that sometimes San 
Francisco is "soft on crime'' may draw criminals 
from out of the city who feel they can come here 
and "not be held accountable.''

Fong's staff said they hand-counted arrests made 
by the Tenderloin Task Force last year and found 
that more than 60 percent of the African 
Americans arrested were listed on booking cards 
as "no local" -- a term often applied to 
transients -- or gave addresses outside San 
Francisco. The department does not have similar 
data for other districts besides the Tenderloin, 
which police looked at because they believe many 
nonresidents are involved in drug dealing and other crimes there.

San Francisco officers arrest criminal suspects 
as they find them, not based on the color of their skin, Fong said.

"I don't think just by looking at the numbers, 
you can prove or disprove that there is any 
targeting,'' she said, adding that factors such 
as repeat offenders and out-of-town criminals influence the numbers.

Others who reviewed the numbers for The Chronicle found them startling.

"What is significant about these numbers is that 
they beg serious attention,'' said San Francisco 
District Attorney Kamala Harris. "These numbers 
are clearly based on a legitimate collection of 
data and are not based on emotional cries.''

Merrick Bobb, a nationally recognized expert in 
police practices, said the city must look harder to explain the numbers.

"The strongly disparate impact of San Francisco 
policing on African Americans begs for a 
convincing set of reasons based solidly on 
empirical fact,'' said Bobb, who heads a 
nonprofit organization in Los Angeles that advises departments nationwide.

"The SFPD, to date, has not persuasively 
explained what legitimate factors cause San 
Francisco to have felony arrest patterns so 
different'' from the state's other biggest cities, Bobb said.

Sheriff Michael Hennessey, who runs the city's 
jails and has tracked their racial composition 
for years, said his lockup population reflects 
the black arrest rate. "The disparity is just 
incredibly dramatic,'' he said. "If you are an 
adult white male, your chances of being in my 
jail are 1 in 365, and if you are an adult black 
male, your chances are 1 in 23.''

The Chronicle began examining the city's black 
felony arrest rate after its investigation of the 
department's use of force, published in February, 
found officers were arresting African Americans 
and reporting use of force on them at rates about 
five times greater than their presence in the city's population.

San Francisco police cited several factors they 
say contribute to African Americans accounting 
for about half of all felony arrests in the city, 
where they are less than 8 percent of the 
population. In 2005, 1 out of 3 arrests of black people involved narcotics.

Officers interviewed by The Chronicle said most 
of the dealers coming from out of town by BART or 
car to sell drugs -- primarily crack cocaine and 
sometimes methamphetamine -- are African 
Americans. Moreover, said Capt. Timothy Hettrich, 
head of the narcotics division, black drug 
dealers often sell out in the open on street 
corners, thus increasing their chances for arrest.

Fong also has said that some of the offenders are 
arrested time and again, thereby increasing the black arrest numbers.

Also, she said, the department has had to devote 
a lot of resources to combatting gangs of youths 
responsible for many of the city's black-on-black 
homicides. William Whitfield, an African American 
officer who has worked in the department for more 
than a decade, said factors such as out-of-town criminals do affect arrests.

"I've seen that with my own eyes -- I got a guy 
once with an automatic weapon around his neck on 
a shoestring coming off of BART,'' Whitfield 
said. "He had the weapon under his jacket, and I 
was buying dope undercover. I saw him walk up 
from BART, and when they moved in and arrested 
him and the crew he was working with, they found 
the weapon. He was an Oakland guy.''

Whitfield said many black criminals today quickly 
resort to violence and this occurs at a younger 
and younger age. People are "selling dope in the 
Sunset, don't get me wrong, but they aren't 
shooting each other over it, and they are out in 
the Bayview and the Fillmore. It's not all about 
dope and gangs, either, because you've got that 
everywhere. Sometimes a shooting is a personal 
beef, sometimes it's jealousy, sometimes it's as 
simple as, 'You were looking at my girlfriend.' ''

'Disturbing' numbers

Many experts acknowledge that the factors Fong 
and her officers cite may contribute to the 
city's black arrest rate. They also note that in 
cities throughout America, African Americans are 
arrested in numbers that exceed their presence in the population.

But they say the black arrest rate in San 
Francisco is so much higher than other California 
cities that the disparity cannot be explained 
completely by the factors cited by police.

"America's criminal justice system 
disproportionately affects African Americans, and 
San Francisco is no exception,'' said Bobb, the 
police practices expert. "What stands out in this 
city is the degree of disproportion, which is 
higher than what I've seen elsewhere on the West Coast.''

Joseph Marshall, a member of the San Francisco 
Police Commission and co-founder of the Omega 
Boys Club who has worked with at-risk youth for 
decades, said he knows the Police Department has 
made a concerted effort to combat black gang 
violence "to reduce the homicides, and those numbers are down.''

But he added: "These numbers on arrest rates are 
disturbing and scream for an explanation. Is 
there something going on within the SFPD that 
makes the numbers so different?''

James Bell, executive director of the San 
Francisco-based W. Haywood Burns Institute for 
Juvenile Justice Fairness and Equity, has been 
wrestling for years with Marshall's question. 
About 60 percent of juveniles detained in the city are black.

"If you are an intelligent, caring person in San 
Francisco, you should be disquieted that in a 
supposedly liberal city, black youths are so much 
in the overwhelming majority among the 
detainees,'' Bell said. "The numbers are just too 
disparate for anyone to credibly advance the 
'you-do-the-crime, you-do-the-time' syndrome as 
an explanation. To believe these numbers, you'd 
have to believe that white kids in places like 
the Haight and the Sunset are basically doing no crime.''

Hettrich, who heads the narcotics division, says 
numbers don't convey what police confront.

"The real story is we go after the drugs, and we 
go where we have had complaints,'' Hettrich said 
in a ride-along interview where he pointed out 
drug dealing hot spots around the city and the 
high numbers of African Americans and Latinos 
making sales. "Those arrest numbers may indicate 
we are doing a good job in areas where we have had complaints.

"Color means nothing to us,'' Hettrich said. "We 
are prejudiced against dealers."

David Dockery, an African American officer who 
walks a beat in the predominantly black Hunters 
Point housing projects, said most citizens "want 
more of us out there. If I could stand in front 
of their houses all day long, that's what they'd like.''

Dockery and his African American partner, Officer 
Mike Robinson, said the department's crime 
chasing is "color blind.'' They also said what 
many officers believe -- that criminals are drawn 
to San Francisco because they feel that if 
caught, their punishment in the courts will be 
lighter than it would be in surrounding counties. 
"We know a guy with four cases pending,'' 
Robinson said. "Where does this stop?''

Answers, not speculation

San Francisco's high black arrest rate is not of 
recent origin: 20 years ago, San Francisco was 
making black felony arrests at a rate much higher 
than California's seven other largest cities, 
state Justice Department reports show. In 1986, 
for example, San Francisco's black felony arrest 
rate was almost 45 percent greater than Los 
Angeles' and almost 51 percent higher than Oakland's.

In the decades since then, San Francisco's black 
felony arrest rate has climbed by more than 35 
percent while the other seven major California 
cities' rates have dropped -- often by a 
considerable amount. During those 20 years, Los 
Angeles' black felony arrest rate dropped by more 
than 36 percent and Oakland's declined by more than 52 percent.

When evaluating why San Francisco's black arrest 
numbers are so different from the other cities', 
Bobb said speculation is not productive.

"It is not helpful, in the absence of thorough 
research and hard evidence, for the SFPD merely 
to speculate as to possible reasons, just as it 
is unproductive for others to speculate that 
there must be police antipathy to African Americans," Bobb said.

A second review was conducted at The Chronicle's 
request by Samuel Walker, a criminal justice 
professor emeritus from the University of 
Nebraska, Omaha, who has consulted with the U.S. 
Justice Department on matters ranging from police 
use of force to questions of race-based civil 
rights violations by police agencies.

Walker concluded that San Francisco police are 
targeting black people in their law enforcement 
efforts. To him, the numbers indicate that "many 
law-abiding citizens" are confronted by officers 
"solely because of their skin color."

"No other factor than race could possibly explain 
the San Francisco arrest data given the fact that 
they are so far out of line compared with other departments,'' Walker said.

Two figures in San Francisco's criminal justice 
system expressed similar conclusions.

Public Defender Jeff Adachi said that he does not 
believe the department has a 
go-after-black-suspects plan, but he added that 
by focusing on heavily black neighborhoods 
plagued by crime and violence, police inevitably 
drive black arrest numbers up and often use those 
high numbers as proof they are in the right spots to catch the criminals.

"I believe that the San Francisco Police 
Department has focused its efforts, in terms of 
'crime crackdowns,' in those neighborhoods where 
there is a high concentration of blacks -- the 
Western Addition, Tenderloin, Visitacion Valley, 
Potrero Hill, Ingleside Terrace and 
Bayview-Hunters Point,'' he said. "This has long 
been the trend since the crack cocaine epidemic, 
when task forces were formed to focus buy-bust 
operations in those neighborhoods.''

Sheriff Hennessey said the problem does not just lie with the police.

"I think this is a reflection of 
institutionalized racism: You are more likely to 
get arrested for the same act if you're black, 
you are more likely to be retained in jail for 
the same crime if you are black, and society is 
more likely to care less about your incarceration 
if you are black," Hennessey said.

Officers in the department said they go where the 
crime and violence is happening.

Mikail Ali and Toney Chaplin, African American 
inspectors in the gang task force, said police 
concentrate their efforts on areas where violence is occurring.

"African American youth are shooting each other 
at a rate far greater than other groups, so we 
try to get those kids on some charge if we can't 
get them on a homicide,'' Chaplin said. Ali 
added: "Social neglect by the community, 
government and business have caused environments 
populated predominantly by black people to be 
conducive to crime and violence, and law 
enforcement ends up having to deal with the 
bottom line -- young black kids killing one 
another at a disproportionate rate.''

The community perception

Chief Fong says officers are taught to treat all 
citizens equally. Police Academy recruits are 
given 52 hours of training -- more than twice the 
state requirement -- on discrimination and 
cultural diversity as it relates to African 
Americans, and other races and segments of 
society, including gays and lesbians, seniors and the homeless.

But in San Francisco's black neighborhoods, many 
believe police give them special attention.

At the Ella Hill Hutch Community Center -- a hub 
of activity for African American youths living in 
the Western Addition -- Executive Director George 
Smith says he is blunt with young people about what he believes they face.

"I tell young kids that you shouldn't break the 
law because this is a system so poised to arrest 
young African American males,'' Smith said.

Guy Hudson, who works two jobs as a city 
athletics coach and as a security guard, knows 
many of the kids in black neighborhoods all over 
town, and he said that many black people believe 
they often can "talk things over'' with police in 
San Francisco when that wouldn't work in Oakland, Santa Clara or Daly City.

Even so, Hudson says, it's a reality that police 
focus on black people in San Francisco. He 
recalls the time three officers stopped him in 
Hunters Point after he "drove down a hill a 
little fast'' and they emerged from their car "pointing guns at my head.''

Hudson, 42, said he asked them, "Out in the 
avenues, would you be jumping out of your car with an automatic machinegun?''

The police eventually let him go. Before they 
drove off, Hudson said, one of them told him that 
someone recently had fired shots at an officer on 
Harbor Road. Hudson said he responded: "That 
gives you the right to pull pistols on everyone in the community?''

Police Commissioner Marshall, who is African 
American, wrote a book, "Street Soldier," in 
which he described the deep-seated antipathy 
black people hold for police. "There's not a 
black person I know who doesn't see the police as 
an occupying force in the community. At the same 
time, though, I'm convinced that if black folks 
stopped blowing each other's brains out, they'd 
be in a much better position to deal with police issues.''

However, there are African Americans who approve 
of the way officers conduct themselves in their neighborhoods.

Al Harris, who lives in the Ingleside and works 
as an organizer for the Safety Network group, 
which is funded by the Mayor's Office of Criminal 
Justice, says police often have to confront a 
"pretty rough world -- you go into neighborhoods 
and you're hated. In some neighborhoods, it's 
instilled from when kids are little that the police are the enemy.''

"I think the police are doing a pretty good 
job,'' Harris added. "I know officers who do all 
kinds of good stuff for the kids, participating 
in community events, giving toys at Christmas, 
hundreds of turkeys at Thanksgiving.''

Asked about whether it appears that police are 
targeting black people for arrest, Harris said: 
"Definitely not. There's no need to target the 
African American kids. They're the ones out on 
the streets selling the drugs.''

Earlier study

The numbers revealing the high arrest rate of 
black people in the city are not the first 
statistical indication that African Americans get special police attention.

In 2002 the American Civil Liberties Union issued 
a report, "A Department in Denial: The San 
Francisco Police Department's Failure To Address 
Racial Profiling,'' which found black motorists 
were more than three times as likely to be 
searched as whites after a traffic stop.

That year San Francisco police arrested black 
people for felonies at the department's highest 
rate in the years reviewed by The Chronicle -- 
171 for every 1,000 African Americans in the city's population.

The next year, the department adopted a new 
general order establishing its commitment to 
"unbiased policing'' and stating officers "must 
be able to articulate specific facts and 
circumstances that support reasonable suspicion 
or probable cause'' for detaining, stopping, 
arresting and searching citizens or seizing their property.

The black arrest rate began to drop. In 2003 it 
was 150 per 1,000, in 2004 it was 146, and in 
2005 it was 145. Even in that last year, though, 
the rate was three times higher than Los Angeles, 
San Jose, Long Beach and San Diego and four times higher than Oakland.

Search for explanation

Looking at the 2000 U.S. census to try to find 
possible reasons for the arrest rate, The 
Chronicle found some similarities and some 
differences between San Francisco and the seven other cities.

Like black residents of those other cities, San 
Francisco African Americans' median household 
income lags considerably behind that of the 
city's total population, and their level of 
education is also typically years behind that of the total population.

Police Commissioner Marshall says answers that 
might seem at least part of the explanation -- 
such as poverty, lack of education and the flight 
of large numbers of middle-class black residents 
from the city in recent decades -- end up 
providing no real guidance, because those 
patterns are found in other cities where the arrest rates are far lower.

In two ways, though, San Francisco does stand 
out: During the 1990s, the city's African 
American population declined faster than in any 
other major U.S. city, dropping by 23 percent, 
according to 2000 census figures.

The black percentage of population also dropped 
in Oakland, San Jose, Los Angeles and San Diego. 
In Fresno, Long Beach and Sacramento, it rose 
somewhat. Today San Francisco, which is 7.8 
percent African American, has the second smallest 
proportion of black people among the state's 
eight biggest cities. San Jose, with 3.5 percent, 
has the smallest, and Oakland, with almost 36 percent, has the largest.

A second difference involved unemployment 
numbers. While African Americans in all the 
cities had high unemployment numbers, only in San 
Francisco was their unemployment rate -- 6.2 
percent -- more than double that of the rest of the population.

Need for investigation

Walker, the Nebraska criminal justice professor, 
said San Francisco's high black arrest rate 
should be investigated by the U.S. Justice 
Department and the state attorney general's office.

Fong said she did not feel the need for a state 
or U.S. Justice Department investigation of San 
Francisco's black felony arrest rate. Instead, 
she said she was consulting with outside experts 
and plans a review of department policies to see if changes are warranted.

She added that the department's efforts to 
analyze its arrest record are made difficult by 
the fact its record keeping system is being 
overhauled and she can't "go to a computer right 
now and pull up arrest data with all this information you have spoken about.''

Newsom said while he is convinced there is no 
"significant racial profiling in our 
department,'' he cannot "in good conscience 
defend the disparity'' between San Francisco and 
other cities' black arrest rates. Referring to 
the arrest numbers, he said, "On face value, they are outrageous.''

The mayor added that as he has worked to push 
programs tackling concentrated poverty in the 
city, such as a tax credit for working families, 
he has concluded "the issues of crime for me are 
overwhelmingly correlated with issues of poverty.''

Newsom added that Fridell, the University of 
South Florida associate professor of criminology 
selected by the city to review its arrest data, 
was picked in part because she has special 
expertise in the area of racial profiling.

One way or another, San Francisco has to discover 
why it is arresting black citizens at a higher 
rate than the other California cities, said Bobb, 
the Los Angeles police practices expert.

What is at stake is the concept of equal treatment under the law, he said.

"The Supreme Court has held that the Constitution 
prohibits selective enforcement of the law based 
on considerations such as race,'' Bobb said. 
"Courts across the country have ruled that using 
impermissible racial classifications in 
determining whom to stop, detain and search 
violates the equal protection clause.''

Walker, the law enforcement expert who has 
consulted for the Justice Department, says the 
San Francisco Police Department "should be 
looking at its own operation to see if there's 
anything it could be doing differently.''

The equal protection under law guarantee of the 
14th Amendment is "the bedrock of all civil 
rights laws in the United States and a 
fundamental principle upon which our country is based,'' he said.

Jack Jacqua, who founded the Omega Boys Club with 
Marshall, said the policing of black people in 
San Francisco is a problem for the city and its leaders.

While he acknowledged that police have "the most 
dangerous, difficult job in America,'' he said 
they "most times treat poor kids from the hood 
differently than they do more affluent kids.''

Jacqua, who has devoted his life to working with 
at-risk youths, added that many black youths come 
from "a population where there is virtually no 
middle class because the middle class people 
can't afford to live here, and many of these 
youngsters end up in the criminal justice system.''

It works this way, Jacqua said: If a kid 
shoplifts in the Sunset District, police are 
probably going to call Mom and Dad and have them 
take their child home. "But if you shoplift 
downtown and your address is in the Bayview, then 
they will take you to jail.''

As for the black community, he said much of it 
"is a mess -- it's destroying itself. Not enough 
people are involved in standing up and 
challenging these youngsters to take 
responsibility for their lives. Where is the leadership?''

And what of the city's liberal political 
establishment that has reigned for many years?

"The bottom line," said Jacqua, "is that poor 
blacks are in the way of what this city wants to 
be, though the city won't admit it because 'we're 
liberal and believe in diversity.' But the city 
really doesn't want poor folks and especially poor black folks.''

VOICES: From double standards to police strategy 
to social factors, there's no tidy explanation

Heather Fong, San Francisco police chief: "I 
support the crime-fighting efforts of the 
officers of this department, who day after day, 
under challenging and perilous circumstances, 
work tirelessly to protect the people of San 
Francisco, and do so in an impartial manner."

Victoria Gray, social worker for the nonprofit 
Family Service Agency: "If you are out here 
black, selling drugs and your pockets full of 
drugs and you get busted and holler 'Racism!' -- 
that's not racism. ... Of course there's racism. 
This is America. But everything isn't linked to 
racism. ... You have to understand all our men 
want is a piece of the American pie, the American 
dream. I don't blame them for wanting some of the 
pie, but I blame them for how they go about it."

Damone Hale, member of the San Francisco Juvenile 
Probation Commission and an attorney who has 
represented many young African Americans: "You 
see officers whose talk is rude and 
disrespectful, and time and again the only 
distinguishing factors we could find is that the 
defendant is African American. It's consistent 
and this treatment is permitted by our society."

Arlene Ackerman, former San Francisco school 
superintendent now teaching at Columbia 
University's Teachers College in New York City: 
"I believe that race in San Francisco is the 
elephant in the room and people refuse to talk 
about it and if you bring it up, then you are the 
racist. I felt more uncomfortable as a black 
person in San Francisco than I have felt in any 
other city. ... Someone has to be courageous and 
step up and address the issue of race in the 
city, starting in the education system and moving 
through the criminal justice system.''

Delores Jones-Brown, a former prosecutor who is 
interim director of the Center on Race, Crime and 
Justice at the City University of New York's John 
Jay College of Criminal Justice: "Typically when 
we see disproportionate arrest rates for African 
Americans or other minorities, it is because the 
police have focused their forces or hot-spot 
policing on areas with large minority 
populations. What is the harm of targeting? 
Innocent people who are unfortunate enough to 
live in economically depressed neighborhoods 
aren't given the same measure of constitutional 
rights as their more affluent counterparts: They 
are stopped and frisked, have their cars and 
persons searched even without permission -- 
simply by virtue of where they live. It's unacceptable."

William Whitfield, officer who joined the San 
Francisco Police Department in 1994: "If I had to 
put my finger on one thing, it's the homes. I 
look at the kids on the corners, and 9 times out 
of 10 there's no dad and maybe 7 times out of 10 
there's no mom in their lives and they are being 
raised by an aunt or grandma. Kids aren't being 
raised as I was -- there's just not that 
accountability in the homes. If they had someone 
at home they knew they had to answer to, that would stop a whole lot of it.''

Tim Nichols, ex-San Francisco police officer, on 
the high black arrest rate: "It comes from the 
fact the majority of officers who want to take on 
criminals are in the Bayview and the Fillmore, 
which are heavily black. I don't believe it's 
racism. ... Officers have to pick and choose the 
severity of the crime they want to spend their 
time on, and officers who make a lot of arrests 
generally go after hard-core criminals." He also 
said black drug dealers are particularly visible: 
"How often do you see a group of whites standing 
on the street corner selling narcotics? Generally 
whites don't sell on the corner."

Sharen Hewitt, director of the Community 
Leadership Academy and Emergency Response 
project, which helps connect low-income clients 
with services, said when she has watched what 
happens on a Friday night on Union Street where 
the crowds are predominantly white, she finds 
"kids tearing up, fighting, smoking marijuana, 
drinking in the streets, guys being abusive to 
women, young men publicly urinating, and I don't 
see a whole lot of them being arrested. Some of 
these behaviors are developmentally appropriate, 
but I don't think African American young men get the luxury of having errors."

Chronicle librarian Kathleen Rhodes contributed 
to this report. E-mail Susan Sward at 
<mailto:ssward at sfchronicle.com>ssward at sfchronicle.com.

African American arrests in California's largest cities

African Americans are involved in a disproportionately high number of arrests

in all of California's largest cities, compared with their population, but the

disparity is greatest in San Francisco.

                                                 Overall       Black arrest

         Black                 Black arrests     arrest rate   rate (arrests

         pct. of      Total            Pct. of   arrests per   per 1,000

   Year  population   arrests  Number    total   1,000 pop.)   black pop.)

   San Francisco

   2005  7.8%         17,495   8,803    50.3%    23


   2004  7.8          17,696   8,854    50.0     23            146

   2003  7.8          18,780   9,056    48.2     24            150

   2002  7.8          20,660  10,322    50.0     27            171

   1986 12.7          18,544   9,246    49.9     27            107


   2005 35.7           6,210   4,867    78.4     16             34

   2004 35.7           7,172   5,548    77.4     18             39

   2003 35.7           7,640   6,087    79.7     19             43

   2002 35.7           9,043   7,178    79.4     23             50

   1986 47.0          13,363  11,325    84.7     39             71

   San Jose

   2005  3.5          11,813   1,253    10.6     13             40

   2004  3.5          10,674   1,246    11.7     12             40

   2003  3.5          11,548   1,303    11.3     13             42

   2002  3.5          11,533   1,343    11.6     13             43

   1986  4.6           9,880   1,489    15.1     16             52


   2005 15.5          11,978   5,119    42.7     29             81

   2004 15.5          11,475   4,784    41.7     28             76

   2003 15.5           9,535   3,916    41.1     23             62

   2002 15.5           8,695   3,747    43.1     21             60

   1986 13.4           7,800   3,421    43.9     28             93


   2005  8.4          11,080   2,443    22.0     26             68

   2004  8.4          10,528   2,386    22.7     25             67

   2003  8.4           9,744   2,103    21.6     23             59

   2002  8.4           9,418   2,054    21.8     22             57

   1986  9.8           6,350   1,591    25.1     29             75

   Los Angeles

   2005 11.2          51,898  19,450    37.5     14             47

   2004 11.2          51,696  19,147    37.0     14             46

   2003 11.2          48,491  17,980    37.1     13             43

   2002 11.2          43,991  15,894    36.1     12             38

   1986 17.0          79,099  37,335    47.2     27             74

   Long Beach

   2005 14.9           8,923   3,435    38.5     19             50

   2004 14.9           8,827   3,467    39.3     19             51

   2003 14.9           8,766   3,430    39.1     19             50

   2002 14.9           7,766   3,099    39.9     17             45

   1986 11.2           8,591   2,421    28.2     24             60

   San Diego

   2005  7.9          17,586   4,749    27.0     14             49

   2004  7.9          17,864   4,879    27.3     15             51

   2003  7.9          17,163   4,547    26.5     14             47

   2002  7.9          15,673   4,311    27.5     13             45

   1986  8.9          16,959   5,833    34.4     19             75

   Sources: State Department of Justice; U.S. Census 1980 and 2000 (Note:

Decennial census data were used rather than yearly surveys because they are

more comprehensive.) Census data compiled and 
researched by Chronicle librarian

Kathleen Rhodes.

   The Chronicle

Page A - 1

©2006 San Francisco Chronicle

The Freedom Archives
522 Valencia Street
San Francisco, CA 94110
(415) 863-9977
-------------- next part --------------
An HTML attachment was scrubbed...
URL: <http://freedomarchives.org/pipermail/ppnews_freedomarchives.org/attachments/20061218/2663f584/attachment.html>

More information about the PPnews mailing list