[Ppnews] LA 8 - 18 Years Waiting for a Gavel to Fall
PPnews at freedomarchives.org
PPnews at freedomarchives.org
Thu Jun 30 08:58:26 EDT 2005
18 Years Waiting for a Gavel to Fall
A group of Palestinians have been in legal and personal limbo for nearly
two decades as the U.S. has sought to deport them. Their case foreshadowed
post-9/11 policy. First of two parts
By Peter H. King
Times Staff Writer
June 29, 2005
On a rain-soaked Saturday afternoon nearly two decades ago, a handful of
young Palestinians gathered at the Glendale Civic Auditorium to prepare for
an evening fundraiser. The event a night of ethnic food, folk dances and
political speeches delivered in Arabic would be attended by an estimated
1,200 men, women and children, most of them immigrants from the Middle East.
It had been promoted as a festival to celebrate the 18th anniversary of the
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, a Marxist-oriented faction
of the Palestine Liberation Organization. The underlying purpose,
organizers said, was to generate donations for "the homeland," in
particular to provide medical care and schooling in Palestinian refugee camps.
"People," the crowd would be reminded that night in the call for
contributions, "the revolution will not continue, and the march to
Palestine will not go on, with words alone."
The preparations seemed fairly unremarkable. Posters were taped to walls.
Palestinian magazines, including copies of a PFLP publication, Al Hadaf,
were arranged on tables. A troupe of amateur dancers practiced a folk dance
known as the dabka.
Before the rehearsal, one dancer removed the American flag from its
standard on the stage and leaned it against a back wall in the wings. This
did not pass unnoticed.
Earlier that day, FBI Special Agent Frank H. Knight had hidden himself
inside an engineering booth outfitted with a window that overlooked the
auditorium. He would remain at his post deep into the night, snapping rolls
of pictures, recording snippets of the speeches and narrating what he saw
into a tape recorder.
For three years Knight had been tracking a number of these Palestinians,
suspecting they were agents of the PFLP, an organization with a mixed
record of social good works, military operations and terrorist strikes.
Unable to convince FBI headquarters that he had evidence of illegal
activities, Knight had come to Glendale with a new plan.
He brought with him an agent from the Immigration and Naturalization
Service: If he could not prosecute the Palestinians, perhaps he could have
Knight did not speak Arabic, and many of his conclusions about that
Saturday, Feb. 15, 1986, would be based on intuition. He reported, for
example, that the music, speeches and "general mood" all "sounded
militaristic." He thought it suspicious that some men in an opening
procession were dressed in khaki shirts and camouflage trousers.
"This would not be a normal attire for obtaining cash for orphans," Knight
surmised. "It is one to get cash for guns."
And although he could not read the posters, the agent noticed that some
depicted people holding AK-47 assault rifles. This led him to conclude,
three minutes into his narration, that "it is obvious that this fundraiser
has nothing to do with building hospitals or schools. It is solely for
raising money for terrorist activities."
Finally, there was the business of the American flag. Not only had it been
removed before the program, Knight would report, the banner was never
returned to its standard. Years later, Knight was pressed in a deposition
to explain why he considered this relevant.
Certainly moving a flag off the stage did not constitute a criminal act,
"I've been to other events, and the American flag usually stays in the
standard. With this group the PFLP, they removed the American flag
it makes a statement
"What kind of statement?"
"An observation," Knight responded. "They treat the flag the way they would
treat the enemy. And, so, it wouldn't be a part of their event."
The revolutionary rhetoric and perceived slights to the flag, the "martial"
music and posters, the khaki clothing all of these in time would be
presented as evidence of seditious inclinations, part of the government's
brief in a pioneering attempt to deport seven Palestinian men and the wife
of one of them, a Kenyan.
The "L.A. 8," they would be called.
This is the story of their case. It is a case that has rattled around the
courts now, incredibly, for 18 years, and yet remains unresolved. It is
also a case that foreshadowed what was to come for many Arab and Muslim
immigrants in America years later, in the aftermath of terror.
Long before Sept. 11, 2001, and President Bush's subsequent declaration of
a "war on terror," long before the Patriot Act and the proactive tactics it
licensed, back in a time when the difficult question of how to root out
potential terrorists without trampling on civil rights seemed more academic
than immediate, there was the case of the L.A. 8.
Since January 1987, when the eight were arrested, the case has bounced from
immigration court, through federal district courts, up to the U.S. Supreme
Court and back again, with side visits to individual immigration status
hearings. Along the way, it tested legal questions that would loom large
after Sept. 11.
Do foreign nationals enjoy the same free-speech protections as citizens?
Can particular immigrant groups be singled out for removal to advance U.S.
policy objectives? When does advocacy for a political cause Palestinian
statehood, say lapse into material support for terrorists with similar
goals but more sinister methods?
The government architects of the case point to it as providing a framework,
years ahead of its time, for the strategy of seeking to identify and remove
possible terrorists and their supporters in America before they can strike.
"Our job is to protect the American people against things that may happen
in the future," said William B. Odencrantz, who came to the L.A. 8 case
early on as a supervising lawyer for what was then called the Immigration
and Naturalization Service. "We're not concerned with convicting people
after they blow up buildings. What we want to do is keep them from being in
a situation where they can blow up a building in the first place.
"And so that's the kind of story we've been trying to sell for 18 years
with respect to this particular incident."
Critics of the case view it, conversely, as an early model of an
anti-terrorism strategy they regard as a campaign of stereotype and
overreach. They argue that to place fundraising for Palestinian refugee
camps and, for that matter, dancing the dabka on par with the dark
works of international terrorists not only diverts government resources
from the hunt for "real terrorists," but undercuts basic constitutional
For the accused, the case has kept them ensnared for nearly two decades.
Released from detention while the litigation played out, they have built
seemingly innocuous lives in Southern California, raising children, buying
homes, starting businesses. Yet they have done so with a gnawing, daily
awareness that their purchase on the landscape remains precarious, with the
government unwavering in its determination to see them removed.
"At first," recalled Maria Obeid, wife of one of the eight, "it was: 'Can
we have kids? Let's not have kids because we don't know what is going to
happen. Let's not buy a house, because something might happen. Let's not
get this job, because something might happen.'
"I mean, everything that you want to do is stopped. And it's not just us,
it's everybody, and it's psychological torture."
The eight were never accused of plotting or committing any act of terrorism
or any crime, for that matter. As William H. Webster, FBI director at the
time, testified before Congress not long after the case broke: "If these
individuals had been United States citizens" rather than green card
holders and foreign students "there would not have been a basis for an
Rather, they were targeted for removal, technically a civil proceeding, on
grounds that they allegedly had raised money for the PFLP. More
specifically, the initial charges involved the eight's efforts to
distribute Al Hadaf, the PFLP magazine a publication available in public
libraries, on college campuses and even at the U.S. Library of Congress.
The government contended that the magazine linked the defendants to an
organization advocating the "doctrines of world communism," a deportable
offense under a provision of the McCarran-Walter Act, which was conceived
during the McCarthy era as a means to remove immigrants with Marxist leanings.
The charges against the L.A. 8 have been reworked at least three times
since, reflecting changes in immigration and anti-terrorism laws, some of
which were tailored to be applied retroactively to this case. For all of
that, however, the matter is far from finished.
Two of the eight, Khader Musa Hamide and Michel Ibrahim Shehadeh, are
scheduled for trial in immigration court next month, with the government
seeking to deport them under a provision of the Patriot Act that forbids
giving material support to terrorist organizations. The outcome of their
trial could influence the fate of the others. Should the government
prevail, it could in theory take the same tack against the rest of the L.A. 8.
The respondents, as defendants are called in immigration court, hope the
trial will bring an end to the case a hope tempered by experience.
"I think we are going to win, but now what is the price of winning?" asked
Hamide, alleged leader of the eight and a father of three who now makes his
living as a wholesaler of coffee beans. "It's already been 18 years of hell
and misery for all of us. Is it going to take another 18 years? I mean, we
want to go on with our lives."
Los Angeles in the early 1980s, the Los Angeles in which this case took
root, was in the midst of transformation, on its way to becoming what
boosters at the time liked to call a "world city."
The agents of change, by and large, were immigrants.
Refugees were pouring in from seemingly every corner of the planet, from
Soviet Armenia, Mexico and El Salvador, Cambodia and South Korea, from the
Philippines, Thailand and Pakistan.
Many did not leave their political passions and causes behind in the old
country. Palestinians were no exception. They followed closely the fighting
then underway with Israeli troops in Lebanon. They kept themselves informed
on the dismal conditions of the refugee camps.
"Back then," Shehadeh recalled, "we were getting reports that people in the
refugee camps were eating dogs and rats. They were so besieged. And the
whole Palestinian community worldwide was energized to rebuild hospitals,
start clinics, to help alleviate human suffering."
One response, he said, was to raise money at events like the one held in
Glendale. Various Palestinian organizations would sponsor them. Ayman
Obeid, one of the eight and a performer at the event, said the gatherings
served another purpose: giving displaced and homesick immigrants an
opportunity to take comfort in like company.
When he looked out from the stage, Obeid said, "I did not see any
terrorists. I saw families. They brought their kids. For them it was to see
live music, dance. Their eyes were lit. They thought we were kind of the
Boyz II Men group. Because we liked what we did, and they liked what they
saw, and that was the extent of it."
After the performances, he said, would come a pitch for donations, which he
characterized this way: " 'And can we get some money to send to the needy?'
And that was it."
As they look back now, some of the eight recall the early 1980s as a time
for hope. They were young, outspoken advocates of the Palestinian cause,
and sensed momentum in their drive to push American public opinion their
way. They were engaged not only in fundraisers, but also in campus rallies,
protests, leafleting, voter drives.
"We wanted to influence the U.S.," Hamide said. "We wanted to be like the
Jews of the United States. Do you know what I am saying? To work from
within the system. That is why we demonstrated in the streets. We engaged
every group that was willing to listen to us, whether it was on campuses,
churches, community groups and political people.
"Anybody who was willing to listen to us, we went to them, with literature,
with dialogue, with whatever it took. Books, you name it with dance, with
food, with anything we could. We wanted to bring out the truth."
Those with opposing views about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict took
notice of a heightened Palestinian profile across America. In 1983, a
booklet published by the Anti-Defamation League of B'Nai B'rith reported,
"Beginning in June with Israel's military action against the PLO in
Lebanon, a pro-Arab propaganda network, which had been growing steadily in
the United States for many years, erupted in full force."
At the same time, there were suspicions in Southern California that the
Palestinian activists might be up to more than political propaganda. An
investigative article in the now-defunct New West magazine asserted that
Palestinians in Los Angeles had created "an operational base for
international terrorism" and that the government was "doing little."
In the article, an FBI supervisor complained about a lack of legal "tools"
and said: "We can't even start to investigate a terrorist group until we
have solid information that they are planning, say, to bomb a building
not that they are talking about it. But that they have already bought the
fuses and the wires and the electric clock."
Enter Frank H. Knight, a tall, silver-haired agent who was to become an
almost mythic, monster-like figure in the memories of the L.A. 8.
Knight, a Midwesterner, had joined the FBI in the late 1970s. He was well
into his 30s, having served as an Army officer in Vietnam and a junior high
school science teacher.
He was assigned to the Los Angeles office's counter-terrorism detail in
1980 and picked up the trail of Hamide and the PFLP in 1983. Over the next
four years, he would prove himself to be not only determined but also
creative, developing theories about domestic terrorism and how to combat it
that appear to have been years ahead of their time.
Now 61, retired from the FBI and living in San Diego, Knight declined to
answer questions about the case because it remains open. With one
exception, other prosecutors and investigators, through public affairs
officers, took the same stance, as they have from the start.
The years of litigation, however, have churned up dozens of memos,
teletypes and internal reports. Also, Knight was deposed for four days in
1996 by an L.A. 8 lawyer, and his testimony provides significant insights
into his conception of the case.
For three years, Knight and fellow investigators tailed Hamide, a Burbank
busboy who had immigrated to the United States from Bethlehem, in the West
Bank, on a Jordanian passport in 1971.
They followed him to the Go-Between Express Bar-Cafe in Silver Lake, where
he was overheard saying something about "presentation of the cause" and
"problems" as he pored over documents with two companions.
They followed him to a Carl's Jr. in Glendale and caught more snippets of
conversation "rent a building," "progressive Republican" and "May Day."
They staked out his Glendale apartment and watched him lug boxes of
publications, including copies of Al Hadaf, from his car. An L.A. sheriff's
deputy happened to live in the same building and happened to notice the
regular visits of several Arab males to Hamide's apartment.
What prompted Knight's initial interest in Hamide and the PFLP remains less
than clear. There were mentions in early reports of tips from other FBI
field offices, as well as a widespread effort before the 1984 Los Angeles
Olympics to check out anyone who might conceivably be connected to any
terrorist plot against the Games.
After the arrests in 1987, Anti-Defamation League officials claimed that
the investigation had been triggered by information developed by their
organization. They would back away from this boast a few years later,
however, in the wake of embarrassing disclosures that ADL operatives in
several cities, including Los Angeles, had kept thousands of covert files
on people they deemed worthy of extra vigilance. Indeed, ADL files on
Hamide and Shehadeh did turn up.
As his investigation proceeded, Knight began to read up on Palestinian
politics and, in particular, the PFLP. Founded in 1967, it had claimed
responsibility for a number of terrorist acts, including political
assassinations and the hijacking of jetliners. As it evolved and became
part of the social fabric of the Palestinian territories, it also opened
medical clinics and schools.
These good works did not impress Knight. Asked in his deposition about the
day-care centers and kindergartens, he replied: "You engage in these
activities for many reasons. One being humanitarian reasons. The other is
as a recruitment vehicle. Gain the hearts and minds of the mother, and
she'll send her son to war."
Knight believed it was impossible to be dedicated to the PFLP, with its
Marxist dogma, and still be a law-abiding American resident. "The PFLP," he
declared in one report, "is interested in no less than the subjugation of
the entire world under a communist regime, and not the mere establishment
of a Palestinian state. PFLP people, by virtue of their creed, hate the
United States and all the U.S. Constitution stands for."
The members of the L.A. 8, not surprisingly, disagree with this stark view.
Without admitting they were agents of the PFLP, those interviewed for this
article did say there were aspects of the organization they found attractive.
The PFLP was secular, they said, and it promoted feminism. Its social
programs were effective. It was staunch in its insistence on Palestinian
statehood, and by the early 1980s its fighting wing seemed to be moving
away from attacks on civilians and toward operations against military targets.
That they could hold these views and still claim not to support
PFLP-sponsored terrorism, was something Knight could not accept: "To the
committed PFLP member," he asserted in one document, "pulling a trigger is
no different than selling a subscription to Al Hadaf, and soliciting money
for the cause is the same as killing Zionists. Every act has a political
message. Every utterance carries a terrorist purpose."
By 1984 the object of Knight's investigation had become clear: to
"neutralize" the PFLP in Southern California by removing Hamide. He
described Hamide, who had studied marketing at the University of Oregon and
had gained permanent-resident status, as "intelligent, aggressive,
dedicated," with "great leadership ability." Taking him out of action, he
wrote to his superiors, would "severely hinder the PFLP in L.A."
Knight began to stake out fundraisers organized by Hamide, noting that he
did little of the physical work but gave plenty of orders. The speeches at
the events, Knight would later report after obtaining translations, were
"all anti-peace, anti-United States peace settlement, anti-Jordanian peace
settlement and anti-Israel." One summary also mentioned "anti-Reagan"
overtones. Still, it was a difficult criminal case to build.
Various Palestinian charity organizations were listed as the official
sponsors of the fundraisers, and donation checks were made out to them.
Knight, relying on what he said was a single confidential source, regarded
this as a sham. In any event, the money raised at the Southern California
events he staked out was never traced to find out exactly where it was spent.
Knight believed it made little difference if the funds were earmarked for
benign works donations to a PFLP kindergarten simply would free up money
for PFLP AK-47s. "We know that the United States is a moneymaking apparatus
for the PFLP from their captured documents," Knight testified in his
deposition. The group committed "lots of attacks on people, a lot of
military attacks, as well. And it's not free. It costs money. And money is
In his view, even the dancers who performed at fundraisers were supporting
"They put on a show for you," Knight said of the dabka performers. "And
it's the whole ambience that's generated in the thing that causes people to
reach into their pockets and give money."
There was, however, a problem with Knight's theory.
His superiors in Washington were not buying it.
Three times he laid out the evidence he'd gathered and asked headquarters
for permission to open an official investigation, a bureaucratic step
paving the way for criminal prosecution. The responses were blunt.
"FBIHQ has again reviewed LA's request," one communique read, "
determined that Hamide is associated with Popular Front for the Liberation
of Palestine (PFLP) principals and activities.
"The circumstances presented concerning his PFLP activities do not
demonstrate preparation for terrorism, but rather, the exercise of his
rights as guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution and its Amendments.
Therefore, LA's request is again denied."
An FBI agent in New York who shared Knight's interest in the PFLP suggested
he team up with immigration authorities. There was, the agent wrote Knight,
a significant upside to this then-novel approach: "INS deportation hearings
are not criminal trials, and the rules of evidence are less stringent, such
as hearsay, disclosure of sources, etc."
Knight met with an attorney of the Immigration and Naturalization Service
in Los Angeles. He was briefed on the McCarran-Walter Act and the provision
dealing with the deportation of communists. He revisited the Marxist
ideologies expressed in the PFLP magazines that Hamide and his associates
He also requested that an INS agent be loaned to his investigation. This
was done, although the INS supervisor who authorized the assignment later
would say he had been left somewhat in the dark about what kind of case
Knight was attempting to build.
"I don't think we knew what the full deck of cards was," former INS
District Director Ernest Gustafson recalled. "I'm not so sure we were
completely in the loop." Nonetheless, the INS would authorize the arrests.
Knight informed the FBI of his plans: "This novel approach," he wrote,
"would utilize information developed from FBI investigations with the INS
deportation laws." He met in Washington with superiors and came away
believing that the U.S. attorney general supported the effort.
After the INS agent joined his investigation, Knight learned that Hamide
was about to be sent a letter of invitation to become a full-fledged U.S.
citizen the final step in the immigration process. Acting on Knight's
information, the INS withheld the invitation.
Shehadeh, too, was close to becoming a naturalized citizen when, on Jan.
26, 1987, two men and a woman, all dressed in gray, came to his Long Beach
house. They announced they were from the INS. As he opened the door,
Shehadeh's first, vaguely formed thought was that these immigration
officers had come to welcome America's newest citizen.
That they would do this at dawn, he recalls thinking, did seem strange.
As they remember it now, all these years later, the morning of the arrests
unfolds in a series of surreal, dream-like scenes. "I remember every
detail," said Hamide. He remembers how the officers and agents burst into
his Glendale apartment with guns drawn. They showed him a subpoena. He did
not understand. It seemed to indicate that they had come to seize magazines.
"So I gave them my magazines. That's funny," he recalled, without a trace
of mirth. "That is really very indicative of this case. They came in with a
subpoena for a magazine. No baseball bats, no guns, no whatever. Because
they knew: I ain't got none."
Aiad Khaled Barakat recalls the knock on his door. He looked down from an
upstairs window and saw a lone Glendale police officer on his porch. There
was a problem, the officer explained. They needed to talk.
"The minute I turned the key to unlock the door," Barakat said, "the door
went like a bulldozer. They pushed it like 10 feet back and people came in,
about 15 or 18. A lot of them."
Shehadeh remembers the sweat that rolled down the chin of the agent who
held him in a headlock. His 3-year-old son had burst into the front room,
wailing, and another agent placed him on the couch. Shehadeh tried to
wriggle free, wanting to comfort the boy. The agent tightened his grip.
"Don't be stupid," Shehadeh remembers him warning. "You don't want your son
to watch you get hurt."
Shehadeh was told that he belonged to a terrorist organization and was
under arrest. They handcuffed him and led him outside. A police helicopter
wheeled low over the house, and that is when the thought clicked: He had
witnessed this scene before.
"The raid on my house in Long Beach," he said, "looked exactly like the
raids in the West Bank: early-morning raids, with helicopters and guns and
police and uniforms. Taken away in a hazy dawn, you know. Except this was
happening in America."
Looking back now, what perplexes him the most was how calm he remained. He
did not lose his temper. He did not lash out and demand to know what was
going on. It took him some time to sort out his emotional response.
"In the back of a Palestinian mind," he explained, "somebody is always
going to come and take you away at any time. A Palestinian expects this
nonsense. We live with it."
Amjad Obeid, Ayman's brother, had just returned from Las Vegas, where he
had eloped with his girlfriend, Maria Garcia. He was a Palestinian Muslim.
She was a Mexican American Catholic. They had agreed to keep the marriage
secret for a few months, to give them time to break the news gently to
Now Maria's mother was on the telephone. She'd seen a Spanish-language
newscast about Palestinian terrorists being arrested that morning. One of
them looked like Maria's friend Amjad. She would not be comforted to learn
from her daughter that he was no longer just a friend. He was her new
son-in-law, the suspected terrorist.
Placed in a patrol car, Amjad Obeid was puzzled. "I remember when I got in
the car there was one individual that sat with me in the back, and he was
just showing me photos of me dancing at events. But I still didn't make
anything out of it why would they? What's going on, you know? And here is
just a thick book of nothing but pictures of me dancing."
Ayman Obeid, who was studying at Cal State Long Beach with his brother, was
asleep in his underwear. He opened his eyes to the barrel of a gun. They
allowed him to dress and then put him in a police car. Seated next to him
was agent Knight, "a big, big, tall guy," he said. "A tough guy. He was
very tough. Intimidation was part of the plan: 'We are the government, and
you are nobody.' "
He said the agent warned him that if he didn't cooperate, he'd be hauled
off to a Middle East country known for its hostile treatment of Palestinian
troublemakers, a country where they'd "love to have you for lunch."
Knight scolded him: "You guys here on the visa. You say you came to study
in our country, and you're doing this to us? How dare you do this? You
know, we can just flick you, and nobody will care about you."
"Yes," Obeid said, those were the agent's "exact words."
He raised a flattened hand, as if to swat at the table where he sat.
"Flick you, like a fly."
They initially were kept in isolation cells and described ominously as
national security threats. Trips to the federal courthouse in downtown L.A.
were made in convoys of unmarked vans, driven at a pace that was, to these
shackled terrorism suspects, truly terrifying.
"One hundred miles an hour," Hamide recalled, "like they are transporting
the biggest Mafia head in Italy to court: 'You are going to kill us, man!'
And there was no reason for it. They knew that
. The whole thing was a put-on."
That they were transported in shackles and not permitted to shave made them
look more plausibly like international terrorists, even though the
government eventually would acknowledge that they were not accused of any
acts of terrorism.
Rather, they were to be deported for their ties to an "organization that
causes to be written, circulated, distributed, published or displayed,
written or printed matter advocating or teaching economic, international
and governmental doctrines of world communism."
Arab American leaders condemned the arrests as a "witch hunt" and
"old-fashioned Arab bashing." There were suggestions that the roundup
represented a "crude response" by the Reagan administration to the taking
of U.S. hostages in Beirut.
Another theory was that the government wanted a test case in the event
war broke out in the increasingly volatile Middle East to establish a
precedent for detaining large numbers of foreign nationals. Shortly after
the arrests, a secret government document discussing just such a plan was
leaked to the media.
The document, "Alien Terrorists and Undesirables: A Contingency Plan,"
appeared to plot a legal course not unlike that being followed in the L.A.
8 case: In the instance of war, immigrants from the Middle East, not liable
for criminal prosecution but considered undesirable, would be arrested for
immigration violations and detained at a camp in Oakdale, La.
Government officials sought to downplay the document's importance, saying
it was merely a draft of a possible approach. Its airing, nonetheless,
rallied support for the arrested Palestinians. The American Civil Liberties
Union and the National Lawyers Guild, along with high-profile lawyers such
as Leonard Weinglass, of Chicago Seven fame, came riding over the hill.
After 18 days in detention, the eight were led in chains into the courtroom
of Immigration Judge Roy Daniel for a bond hearing. Outside, Irv Rubin,
national leader of the militant Jewish Defense League, marched about with a
placard: "Commie Dogs Beware."
The government came into court with generic treatises on the PFLP, pictures
of Palestinian men dancing and promises of more-persuasive secret evidence
that, under orders from the U.S. attorney general, could be produced only
in chambers, away from the respondents, their lawyers and the public.
The judge wondered aloud what the various PFLP atrocities described in the
government literature had to do with these particular Palestinians. Had
they hijacked airplanes? Had they plotted bus bombings? He refused to hear
the secret evidence.
The government lawyer described the fundraisers and demonstrations. She
also offered to share in chambers Knight's classified FBI report on the PFLP.
"I'm going to ask you to do that in public," Daniel said.
The government lawyer responded that, because of "national security"
interests, she could not. Maybe she could approach the bench and whisper
her secrets in the judge's ear? He refused and ordered the eight released,
some on their own recognizance, the rest after they posted nominal bail
They smiled, hugged one another, and were put back in chains for the drive
to Terminal Island, where they would be freed. Outside the courthouse,
their supporters danced the dabka.
Later, as he and the others were led out of the detention facility, Hamide
glanced backward over his shoulder and spotted Knight, peering down from an
Their eyes locked, he said, and in that moment Knight shot Hamide a look he
has never forgotten. "It was like," he said, " 'You bastards.' Just a
cold-blooded look of hatred."
(BEGIN TEXT OF INFOBOX)
Here are major points in the L.A. 8 case, along with key events related to
1983: FBI Special Agent Frank H. Knight begins tracking L.A. Palestinians.
1984: FBI refuses Knight's official investigation request.
Summer Olympics come to Los Angeles, culminating months of scrutiny of
potential terrorism suspects.
1986: Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine fundraiser takes place
1987: Khader Musa Hamide, his wife, Julie Mungai, and Michel Ibrahim
Shehadeh and six others are arrested. Group later consists of eight people.
Immigration Judge Roy Daniel releases all eight pending proceedings.
1990: Immigration Act of 1990 replaces McCarthy-era provisions allowing
deportation of noncitizen communists.
1992: Hamide and Shehadeh begin their first deportation trial, which stalls
because of developments in a civil case.
1995: Oklahoma City bombing kills 168 and injures more than 800;
anti-terrorism laws are toughened.
1996: U.S. District Judge Stephen V. Wilson cites free-speech rights in
blocking deportation of the eight.
1999: U.S. Supreme Court ruling favors government; case returns to
2001: Sept. 11 attacks kill nearly 3,000 and lead to passage of the Patriot
Act with language that allows the L.A. 8 case to continue.
2004: Mungai, a Kenyan native, is granted permanent residency; Aiad Khaled
Barakat is denied citizenship.
2005: July 13: Tentative date for Hamide and Shehadeh's second deportation
Amjad Obeid: A dancer at fundraiser, this Cal State Long Beach student had
just returned from eloping to Las Vegas when he was arrested.
Basher Amer: He was pulled out of college chemistry finals and arrested;
only L.A. 8 member who has left Southern California.
Julie Mungai: Khader Musa Hamide's Kenyan wife now has permanent-resident
Ayman Obeid: Manager at a bank branch in Monrovia is seeking permanent
Aiad Khaled Barakat: Helped distribute Palestinian magazines. He has been
Michel Ibrahim Shehadeh, with his wife, Maxine: Arrested in front of son,
3, in a raid that reminded him of the West Bank.
Khader Musa Hamide: Alleged leader of the L.A. 8, the father of three is a
wholesaler of coffee beans.
Naim Sharif: Became a permanent resident after successfully challenging the
government's use of secret evidence.
Sources: Times research, Infoplease.com
The Freedom Archives
522 Valencia Street
San Francisco, CA 94110
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