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      <title>We Do Not Want a Divided Planet; We Want a World Without
        Walls: The Fifteenth Newsletter (2022)</title>
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href="https://leftword.us11.list-manage.com/track/click?u=6a79324d3b4acfde1e7e546c6&id=3326caee07&e=d206d0a40d"
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                                            moz-do-not-send="true"><span
                                              style="color:#ba2025">View
                                              this email in your browser</span></a></span>
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                                        valign="top"> <strong><span
                                            style="font-size:20px"><span
                                              style="color:#ba2025"><span
style="font-family:lato,helvetica neue,helvetica,arial,sans-serif">We Do
                                                Not Want a Divided
                                                Planet; We Want a World
                                                Without Walls: The
                                                Fifteenth Newsletter
                                                (2022)</span></span></span></strong>
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                                        valign="top"> <br>
                                        <span
                                          style="font-family:lato,helvetica
neue,helvetica,arial,sans-serif">
                                          <div id="attachment_58487"
                                            class="wp-caption
                                            aligncenter"><img
                                              aria-describedby="caption-attachment-58487"
                                              loading="lazy"
                                              class="wp-image-58487
                                              size-full img-responsive
                                              mcRssImage"
src="https://thetricontinental.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Ever-Fonseca-Cuba-Homenaje-a-la-paz-1970..jpg"
                                              alt=""
srcset="https://thetricontinental.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Ever-Fonseca-Cuba-Homenaje-a-la-paz-1970..jpg
                                              948w,
https://thetricontinental.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Ever-Fonseca-Cuba-Homenaje-a-la-paz-1970.-300x300.jpg
                                              300w,
https://thetricontinental.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Ever-Fonseca-Cuba-Homenaje-a-la-paz-1970.-150x150.jpg
                                              150w,
https://thetricontinental.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Ever-Fonseca-Cuba-Homenaje-a-la-paz-1970.-768x770.jpg
                                              768w" sizes="(max-width:
                                              948px) 100vw, 948px"
                                              style="max-width:
                                              100%;width:
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                                              inline;vertical-align:
                                              bottom;border: 0;height:
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                                              none;text-decoration:
                                              none;-ms-interpolation-mode:
                                              bicubic;"
                                              moz-do-not-send="true"
                                              width="948" border="0">
                                            <p
                                              id="caption-attachment-58487"
                                              class="wp-caption-text"
                                              style="margin: 10px
                                              0;padding:
                                              0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                              exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                              Helvetica;font-size:
                                              16px;line-height:
                                              150%;text-align: left;"><span
                                                style="color: #ba2025;">Ever
                                                Fonseca (Cuba), <i>Homenaje
                                                  a la paz </i>(‘Homage
                                                to Peace’), 1970.</span></p>
                                          </div>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;"> </p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;">Dear
                                            friends,</p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;">Greetings
                                            from the desk of <a
href="https://leftword.us11.list-manage.com/track/click?u=6a79324d3b4acfde1e7e546c6&id=43ba2f595b&e=d206d0a40d"
style="mso-line-height-rule: exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
                                              100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust:
                                              100%;color:
                                              #007C89;font-weight:
                                              normal;text-decoration:
                                              underline;"
                                              moz-do-not-send="true">Tricontinental:
                                              Institute for Social
                                              Research</a>.</p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;">While
                                            the United States began its
                                            illegal war against Iraq in
                                            2003, Cuba’s President Fidel
                                            Castro <a
href="https://leftword.us11.list-manage.com/track/click?u=6a79324d3b4acfde1e7e546c6&id=4f68028cbc&e=d206d0a40d"
style="mso-line-height-rule: exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
                                              100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust:
                                              100%;color:
                                              #007C89;font-weight:
                                              normal;text-decoration:
                                              underline;"
                                              moz-do-not-send="true">spoke</a>
                                            in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
                                            ‘Our country does not drop
                                            bombs on other peoples’, he
                                            said, ‘nor does it send
                                            thousands of planes to bomb
                                            cities … Our country’s tens
                                            of thousands of scientists
                                            and doctors have been
                                            educated on the idea of
                                            saving lives’. Cuba had an
                                            army, yes, but not an army
                                            for war; Castro called it
                                            ‘an army of white coats’.
                                            Most recently, Cuba’s Henry
                                            Reeve Brigade of medical
                                            practitioners have
                                            selflessly worked around the
                                            <a
href="https://leftword.us11.list-manage.com/track/click?u=6a79324d3b4acfde1e7e546c6&id=4de3a7c70b&e=d206d0a40d"
style="mso-line-height-rule: exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
                                              100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust:
                                              100%;color:
                                              #007C89;font-weight:
                                              normal;text-decoration:
                                              underline;"
                                              moz-do-not-send="true">world</a>
                                            to help stem the tide of the
                                            COVID-19 pandemic.</p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;">Castro
                                            reminds us that there are
                                            two ways to be alive in this
                                            world. We can live in a
                                            war-filled world awash with
                                            weapons and confounded by
                                            intimidation, a world that
                                            continuously prepares for
                                            combat. Or, we can live in a
                                            world of teachers and
                                            doctors, scientists and
                                            social workers, storytellers
                                            and singers. We can put our
                                            confidence in people who
                                            help us create a better
                                            world than the one we live
                                            in today, this wretched
                                            world of war and profit,
                                            where ugliness threatens to
                                            overwhelm us.</p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;">The
                                            surface of our skin beats
                                            with the fear that a new
                                            iron curtain will descend,
                                            that there is pressure to
                                            box in China and Russia, to
                                            divide the world into camps.
                                            But that is impossible,
                                            because – as noted in last
                                            week’s <a
href="https://leftword.us11.list-manage.com/track/click?u=6a79324d3b4acfde1e7e546c6&id=8530ad531a&e=d206d0a40d"
style="mso-line-height-rule: exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
                                              100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust:
                                              100%;color:
                                              #007C89;font-weight:
                                              normal;text-decoration:
                                              underline;"
                                              moz-do-not-send="true">newsletter</a>
                                            – we live in a knot of
                                            contradictions and not in a
                                            clean cut world of
                                            certainties. Even close
                                            allies of the US, such as
                                            Australia, Germany, Japan,
                                            and India, cannot break
                                            their economic and political
                                            ties with Russia and China.
                                            Doing so would plunge them
                                            into a recession, bringing
                                            the kind of economic chaos
                                            that war and sanctions have
                                            already brought to Honduras,
                                            Pakistan, Peru, and Sri
                                            Lanka. In those countries –
                                            already battered by the
                                            International Monetary Fund
                                            by the greed of the elites
                                            and by foreign embassies –
                                            rising fuel prices have
                                            transformed an economic
                                            crisis into a political
                                            crisis.</p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;"> </p>
                                          <div id="attachment_58497"
                                            class="wp-caption
                                            aligncenter"><img
                                              aria-describedby="caption-attachment-58497"
                                              loading="lazy"
                                              class="wp-image-58497
                                              size-full img-responsive
                                              mcRssImage"
src="https://thetricontinental.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Sergey-Grinevich-Belarus-Tank-2013..jpg"
                                              alt=""
srcset="https://thetricontinental.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Sergey-Grinevich-Belarus-Tank-2013..jpg
                                              721w,
https://thetricontinental.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Sergey-Grinevich-Belarus-Tank-2013.-228x300.jpg
                                              228w" sizes="(max-width:
                                              721px) 100vw, 721px"
                                              style="max-width:
                                              100%;width:
                                              100%;padding-bottom:
                                              0;display:
                                              inline;vertical-align:
                                              bottom;border: 0;height:
                                              auto;outline:
                                              none;text-decoration:
                                              none;-ms-interpolation-mode:
                                              bicubic;"
                                              moz-do-not-send="true"
                                              width="721" border="0">
                                            <p
                                              id="caption-attachment-58497"
                                              class="wp-caption-text"
                                              style="margin: 10px
                                              0;padding:
                                              0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                              exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                              Helvetica;font-size:
                                              16px;line-height:
                                              150%;text-align: left;"><span
                                                style="color: #ba2025;">Sergey
                                                Grinevich (Belarus), <i>Tank</i>,
                                                2013.</span></p>
                                          </div>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;"> </p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;">Wars
                                            either end with the
                                            destruction of a country’s
                                            political institutions and
                                            its social capacity or they
                                            end with ceasefires and
                                            negotiations. The North
                                            Atlantic Treaty
                                            Organisation’s (NATO) war on
                                            Libya in 2011 ended with the
                                            country stumbling along with
                                            the smell of cordite in the
                                            air and a broken social
                                            order. The fate of Libya
                                            should not be repeated
                                            anywhere, certainly not in
                                            Ukraine. Yet it is a fate
                                            ordained for the people of
                                            Afghanistan, Somalia, and
                                            Yemen, who have been
                                            suffocated by wars egged on
                                            by the West – wars armed by
                                            the West and that have been
                                            profitable for the West.</p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;">When
                                            contemporary Russia emerged
                                            from the fall of the USSR,
                                            Boris Yeltsin led a coup
                                            against the Russian
                                            parliament, tanks blazing.
                                            Those currently in power in
                                            Russia operate in light of
                                            these violent beginnings and
                                            the experiences of other
                                            war-stricken nations. They
                                            will not allow themselves to
                                            suffer the fate of Libya or
                                            Yemen or Afghanistan.
                                            Negotiations between Russia
                                            and Ukraine are ongoing in
                                            Belarus’ Homyel Voblasts (or
                                            Gomel Region), but trust
                                            must be strengthened before
                                            a ceasefire can become a
                                            real possibility. Any
                                            ceasefire should not only
                                            apply to the war inside
                                            Ukraine – which is
                                            imperative – but should also
                                            include halting the broader
                                            US-imposed pressure campaign
                                            on all of Eurasia.</p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;"> </p>
                                          <div id="attachment_58507"
                                            class="wp-caption
                                            aligncenter"><img
                                              aria-describedby="caption-attachment-58507"
                                              loading="lazy"
                                              class="wp-image-58507
                                              size-full img-responsive
                                              mcRssImage"
src="https://thetricontinental.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Svetlana-Rumak-Russia-Endless-Green-Fields-2017..jpg"
                                              alt=""
srcset="https://thetricontinental.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Svetlana-Rumak-Russia-Endless-Green-Fields-2017..jpg
                                              950w,
https://thetricontinental.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Svetlana-Rumak-Russia-Endless-Green-Fields-2017.-300x281.jpg
                                              300w,
https://thetricontinental.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Svetlana-Rumak-Russia-Endless-Green-Fields-2017.-768x719.jpg
                                              768w" sizes="(max-width:
                                              950px) 100vw, 950px"
                                              style="max-width:
                                              100%;width:
                                              100%;padding-bottom:
                                              0;display:
                                              inline;vertical-align:
                                              bottom;border: 0;height:
                                              auto;outline:
                                              none;text-decoration:
                                              none;-ms-interpolation-mode:
                                              bicubic;"
                                              moz-do-not-send="true"
                                              width="950" border="0">
                                            <p
                                              id="caption-attachment-58507"
                                              class="wp-caption-text"
                                              style="margin: 10px
                                              0;padding:
                                              0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                              exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                              Helvetica;font-size:
                                              16px;line-height:
                                              150%;text-align: left;"><span
                                                style="color: #ba2025;">Svetlana
                                                Rumak (Russia) <i>Endless
                                                  Green Fields</i>,
                                                2017.</span></p>
                                          </div>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;"> </p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;">What
                                            is that pressure campaign
                                            and why bother talking about
                                            it now? Shouldn’t we only
                                            say <i>Russia out of
                                              Ukraine?</i> Such a
                                            slogan, while correct, does
                                            not address the deeper
                                            problems that provoked this
                                            war in the first place.</p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;">When
                                            the USSR collapsed, Western
                                            countries wielded their
                                            resources and power through
                                            Boris Yeltsin (1991–1999)
                                            and then Vladimir Putin
                                            (from 1999). First, the West
                                            impoverished the Russian
                                            people by destroying the
                                            country’s social net and
                                            allowing elite Russians to
                                            devour the country’s social
                                            wealth. Then, they drew the
                                            new Russian billionaires
                                            into investing in
                                            Western-driven globalisation
                                            (including English football
                                            teams). The West backed
                                            Yeltsin’s bloody war in
                                            Chechnya (1994–1996) and
                                            then Putin’s war in Chechnya
                                            (1999–2000). Former British
                                            Prime Minister Tony Blair
                                            (1997–2007) signed
                                            allowances for Russia to buy
                                            British weapons till his arm
                                            hurt and welcomed Putin to
                                            London in 2000, <a
href="https://leftword.us11.list-manage.com/track/click?u=6a79324d3b4acfde1e7e546c6&id=07ab856109&e=d206d0a40d"
style="mso-line-height-rule: exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
                                              100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust:
                                              100%;color:
                                              #007C89;font-weight:
                                              normal;text-decoration:
                                              underline;"
                                              moz-do-not-send="true">saying</a>,
                                            ‘I want Russia and the West
                                            to work together to promote
                                            stability and peace’. In
                                            2001, former US President
                                            George W. Bush described
                                            looking into Putin’s eyes
                                            and seeing his soul, <a
href="https://leftword.us11.list-manage.com/track/click?u=6a79324d3b4acfde1e7e546c6&id=9ad7a4e4c6&e=d206d0a40d"
style="mso-line-height-rule: exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
                                              100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust:
                                              100%;color:
                                              #007C89;font-weight:
                                              normal;text-decoration:
                                              underline;"
                                              moz-do-not-send="true">calling</a>
                                            him ‘straightforward and
                                            trustworthy’. In the same
                                            year, <i>The New York Times</i>’
                                            Thomas Friedman <a
href="https://leftword.us11.list-manage.com/track/click?u=6a79324d3b4acfde1e7e546c6&id=f8f8dc7d0b&e=d206d0a40d"
style="mso-line-height-rule: exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
                                              100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust:
                                              100%;color:
                                              #007C89;font-weight:
                                              normal;text-decoration:
                                              underline;"
                                              moz-do-not-send="true">encouraged</a>
                                            readers to ‘keep rootin’ for
                                            Putin’. It was the West that
                                            helped the Russian
                                            billionaire class capture
                                            the state and ride astride
                                            Russian society.</p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;">Once
                                            the Russian government
                                            decided that integration
                                            with Europe and the US was
                                            not possible, the West began
                                            to portray Putin as
                                            diabolical. This movie keeps
                                            replaying: Saddam Hussein of
                                            Iraq was a great hero of the
                                            US and then its villain, the
                                            same with former military
                                            leader Manuel Antonio
                                            Noriega of Panama. Now the
                                            stakes are unforgivably
                                            higher, the dangers greater.</p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;"> </p>
                                          <div id="attachment_58517"
                                            class="wp-caption
                                            aligncenter"><img
                                              aria-describedby="caption-attachment-58517"
                                              loading="lazy"
                                              class="wp-image-58517
                                              size-full img-responsive
                                              mcRssImage"
src="https://thetricontinental.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Shakir-Hassan-al-Said-Iraq-The-Victims-1957..jpg"
                                              alt=""
srcset="https://thetricontinental.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Shakir-Hassan-al-Said-Iraq-The-Victims-1957..jpg
                                              950w,
https://thetricontinental.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Shakir-Hassan-al-Said-Iraq-The-Victims-1957.-300x244.jpg
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https://thetricontinental.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Shakir-Hassan-al-Said-Iraq-The-Victims-1957.-768x624.jpg
                                              768w" sizes="(max-width:
                                              950px) 100vw, 950px"
                                              style="max-width:
                                              100%;width:
                                              100%;padding-bottom:
                                              0;display:
                                              inline;vertical-align:
                                              bottom;border: 0;height:
                                              auto;outline:
                                              none;text-decoration:
                                              none;-ms-interpolation-mode:
                                              bicubic;"
                                              moz-do-not-send="true"
                                              width="950" border="0">
                                            <p
                                              id="caption-attachment-58517"
                                              class="wp-caption-text"
                                              style="margin: 10px
                                              0;padding:
                                              0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                              exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                              Helvetica;font-size:
                                              16px;line-height:
                                              150%;text-align: left;"><span
                                                style="color: #ba2025;">Shakir
                                                Hassan al-Said (Iraq), <i>The
                                                  Victims</i>, 1957.</span></p>
                                          </div>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;"> </p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;">Beneath
                                            the surface of the current
                                            moment lies dynamics that we
                                            foregrounded in our tenth <a
href="https://leftword.us11.list-manage.com/track/click?u=6a79324d3b4acfde1e7e546c6&id=541fe9f6c3&e=d206d0a40d"
style="mso-line-height-rule: exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
                                              100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust:
                                              100%;color:
                                              #007C89;font-weight:
                                              normal;text-decoration:
                                              underline;"
                                              moz-do-not-send="true">newsletter</a>
                                            of this year. The US
                                            unilaterally damaged the
                                            international arms control
                                            architecture, withdrawing
                                            from the Anti-Ballistic
                                            Missile Treaty (2001) and
                                            the Intermediate-Range
                                            Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty
                                            (2018) and thereby gutting
                                            the policy of deterrence. In
                                            December 2018, the US pushed
                                            its allies to <a
href="https://leftword.us11.list-manage.com/track/click?u=6a79324d3b4acfde1e7e546c6&id=b001ffd94d&e=d206d0a40d"
style="mso-line-height-rule: exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
                                              100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust:
                                              100%;color:
                                              #007C89;font-weight:
                                              normal;text-decoration:
                                              underline;"
                                              moz-do-not-send="true">prevent</a>,
                                            by a slim margin, the United
                                            Nations General Assembly
                                            from passing a resolution to
                                            defend the INF. Putin began
                                            to talk about the need for
                                            security guarantees, not
                                            from Ukraine or even from
                                            NATO, which is a puffed-up
                                            Trojan Horse of Washington’s
                                            ambitions: Russia needed
                                            security guarantees directly
                                            from the US.</p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;">Why?
                                            Because in 2018, the US
                                            government <a
href="https://leftword.us11.list-manage.com/track/click?u=6a79324d3b4acfde1e7e546c6&id=8449098fc3&e=d206d0a40d"
style="mso-line-height-rule: exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
                                              100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust:
                                              100%;color:
                                              #007C89;font-weight:
                                              normal;text-decoration:
                                              underline;"
                                              moz-do-not-send="true">announced</a>
                                            a shift in foreign policy
                                            that signalled that they
                                            would increase their
                                            competition with China and
                                            Russia. NATO-led naval
                                            exercises near both
                                            countries also gave Russia
                                            cause for concern about its
                                            security. The US’s
                                            bellicosity is <a
href="https://leftword.us11.list-manage.com/track/click?u=6a79324d3b4acfde1e7e546c6&id=81c0eb387e&e=d206d0a40d"
style="mso-line-height-rule: exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
                                              100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust:
                                              100%;color:
                                              #007C89;font-weight:
                                              normal;text-decoration:
                                              underline;"
                                              moz-do-not-send="true">enshrined</a>
                                            in its 2022 National Defence
                                            Strategy, where it asserts
                                            that the United States is
                                            ‘prepared to prevail in
                                            conflict when necessary,
                                            prioritising [China’s]
                                            challenge in the
                                            Indo-Pacific, then the
                                            Russian challenge in
                                            Europe’. The key phrase is
                                            that the US is <i>prepared
                                              to prevail in conflict</i>.
                                            The entire attitude of
                                            domination and of defeat is
                                            a macho attitude against
                                            humanity. The US-imposed
                                            pressure campaign around
                                            Eurasia must end.</p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;"> </p>
                                          <div id="attachment_58527"
                                            class="wp-caption
                                            aligncenter"><img
                                              aria-describedby="caption-attachment-58527"
                                              loading="lazy"
                                              class="wp-image-58527
                                              size-full img-responsive
                                              mcRssImage"
src="https://thetricontinental.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Abel-Rodriguez-Colombia-Territorio-de-Mito-2017..jpg"
                                              alt=""
srcset="https://thetricontinental.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Abel-Rodriguez-Colombia-Territorio-de-Mito-2017..jpg
                                              950w,
https://thetricontinental.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Abel-Rodriguez-Colombia-Territorio-de-Mito-2017.-300x153.jpg
                                              300w,
https://thetricontinental.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Abel-Rodriguez-Colombia-Territorio-de-Mito-2017.-768x392.jpg
                                              768w" sizes="(max-width:
                                              950px) 100vw, 950px"
                                              style="max-width:
                                              100%;width:
                                              100%;padding-bottom:
                                              0;display:
                                              inline;vertical-align:
                                              bottom;border: 0;height:
                                              auto;outline:
                                              none;text-decoration:
                                              none;-ms-interpolation-mode:
                                              bicubic;"
                                              moz-do-not-send="true"
                                              width="950" border="0">
                                            <p
                                              id="caption-attachment-58527"
                                              class="wp-caption-text"
                                              style="margin: 10px
                                              0;padding:
                                              0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                              exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                              Helvetica;font-size:
                                              16px;line-height:
                                              150%;text-align: left;"><span
                                                style="color: #ba2025;">Abel
                                                Rodríguez (Colombia), <i>Territorio
                                                  de Mito </i>(‘Myth
                                                Territory’), 2017.</span></p>
                                          </div>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;"> </p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;">We
                                            do not want a divided world.
                                            We want a realistic world: a
                                            world of humanity that deals
                                            adequately with the climate
                                            catastrophe. A world that
                                            wants to end hunger and
                                            illiteracy. A world that
                                            wants to lift us out of
                                            despair into hope. A world
                                            with more armies of white
                                            coats and instead of armies
                                            with guns.</p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;"> </p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;"><img
                                              loading="lazy"
                                              class="aligncenter
                                              wp-image-58559 size-full
                                              img-responsive mcRssImage"
src="https://thetricontinental.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/20220330_Fems-3_EN_TT-e1649861479386.jpg"
                                              alt="" style="max-width:
                                              100%;width:
                                              100%;padding-bottom:
                                              0;display:
                                              inline;vertical-align:
                                              bottom;border: 0;height:
                                              auto;outline:
                                              none;text-decoration:
                                              none;-ms-interpolation-mode:
                                              bicubic;"
                                              moz-do-not-send="true"
                                              width="950" border="0"></p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;"> </p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;">At
                                            Tricontinental: Institute
                                            for Social Research, we
                                            amplify the lives and voices
                                            of people building a world
                                            of hope against fear, a
                                            world of love against hate.
                                            One such person is Nela
                                            Martínez Espinosa
                                            (1912–2004), the focus of
                                            the <a
href="https://leftword.us11.list-manage.com/track/click?u=6a79324d3b4acfde1e7e546c6&id=8756892c92&e=d206d0a40d"
style="mso-line-height-rule: exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
                                              100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust:
                                              100%;color:
                                              #007C89;font-weight:
                                              normal;text-decoration:
                                              underline;"
                                              moz-do-not-send="true">third</a>
                                            study in our <i>Women of
                                              Struggle, Women in
                                              Struggle </i>series.
                                            Nela, as we call her, was a
                                            leading figure in the
                                            Communist Party of Ecuador
                                            and a builder of
                                            institutions that infused
                                            the masses with confidence.
                                            These organisations included
                                            anti-fascist fronts and
                                            women’s federations, support
                                            for the rights of indigenous
                                            Ecuadorians, and platforms
                                            defending the Cuban
                                            Revolution. In 1944, during
                                            the Glorious May Revolution,
                                            Nela briefly led the
                                            government. Throughout her
                                            life, she worked tirelessly
                                            to build the basis for a
                                            better world.</p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;">In
                                            2000, as president of the
                                            Women’s Continental Front
                                            for Peace and against
                                            Intervention, Nela fought
                                            against the creation of a US
                                            military base in the city of
                                            Manta. ‘Colonisation
                                            returns’, Nela said. ‘How
                                            will we escape this
                                            colonisation? How can we
                                            justify ourselves in the
                                            face of our cowardice?’</p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;">That
                                            last question hangs over us.
                                            We do not want to live in a
                                            divided world. We must act
                                            to prevent the iron curtain
                                            from descending. We must
                                            fight against our fear. We
                                            must fight for a world
                                            without walls.</p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;">Warmly,</p>
                                          <p style="margin: 10px
                                            0;padding:
                                            0;mso-line-height-rule:
                                            exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #202020;font-family:
                                            Helvetica;font-size:
                                            16px;line-height:
                                            150%;text-align: left;">Vijay
                                            Prashad<br>
                                          </p>
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                                                          class="mcnFollowContentItem"
style="border-collapse: collapse;mso-table-lspace: 0pt;mso-table-rspace:
0pt;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;"
                                                          width="100%"
                                                          cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0" border="0">
                                                          <tbody>
                                                          <tr>
                                                          <td
                                                          style="padding-top:
5px;padding-right: 10px;padding-bottom: 5px;padding-left:
                                                          9px;mso-line-height-rule:
exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;"
                                                          valign="middle"
                                                          align="left">
                                                          <table
                                                          style="border-collapse:
collapse;mso-table-lspace: 0pt;mso-table-rspace:
                                                          0pt;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;" width="" cellspacing="0"
                                                          cellpadding="0"
                                                          border="0"
                                                          align="left">
                                                          <tbody>
                                                          <tr>
                                                          <td
                                                          class="mcnFollowIconContent"
style="mso-line-height-rule: exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
                                                          100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust:
                                                          100%;"
                                                          width="24"
                                                          valign="middle"
                                                          align="center">
                                                          <a
                                                          href="www.eltricontinental.org"
target="_blank" style="mso-line-height-rule:
                                                          exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;" moz-do-not-send="true"><img
src="https://cdn-images.mailchimp.com/icons/social-block-v2/dark-link-48.png"
                                                          alt="Website"
style="display: block;border: 0;height: auto;outline:
                                                          none;text-decoration:
none;-ms-interpolation-mode: bicubic;" class="" moz-do-not-send="true"
                                                          width="24"
                                                          height="24"></a>
                                                          </td>
                                                          </tr>
                                                          </tbody>
                                                          </table>
                                                          </td>
                                                          </tr>
                                                          </tbody>
                                                          </table>
                                                          </td>
                                                          </tr>
                                                          </tbody>
                                                        </table>
                                                        <!--[if mso]>
                                        </td>
                                        <![endif]-->
                                                        <!--[if mso]>
                                        <td align="center" valign="top">
                                        <![endif]-->
                                                        <table
                                                          style="display:
inline;border-collapse: collapse;mso-table-lspace: 0pt;mso-table-rspace:
0pt;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;"
                                                          cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0" border="0" align="left">
                                                          <tbody>
                                                          <tr>
                                                          <td
                                                          style="padding-right:
10px;padding-bottom: 9px;mso-line-height-rule:
                                                          exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;"
                                                          class="mcnFollowContentItemContainer"
                                                          valign="top">
                                                          <table
                                                          class="mcnFollowContentItem"
style="border-collapse: collapse;mso-table-lspace: 0pt;mso-table-rspace:
0pt;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;"
                                                          width="100%"
                                                          cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0" border="0">
                                                          <tbody>
                                                          <tr>
                                                          <td
                                                          style="padding-top:
5px;padding-right: 10px;padding-bottom: 5px;padding-left:
                                                          9px;mso-line-height-rule:
exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;"
                                                          valign="middle"
                                                          align="left">
                                                          <table
                                                          style="border-collapse:
collapse;mso-table-lspace: 0pt;mso-table-rspace:
                                                          0pt;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;" width="" cellspacing="0"
                                                          cellpadding="0"
                                                          border="0"
                                                          align="left">
                                                          <tbody>
                                                          <tr>
                                                          <td
                                                          class="mcnFollowIconContent"
style="mso-line-height-rule: exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
                                                          100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust:
                                                          100%;"
                                                          width="24"
                                                          valign="middle"
                                                          align="center">
                                                          <a
href="https://leftword.us11.list-manage.com/track/click?u=6a79324d3b4acfde1e7e546c6&id=64c464792a&e=d206d0a40d"
target="_blank" style="mso-line-height-rule:
                                                          exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;" moz-do-not-send="true"><img
src="https://cdn-images.mailchimp.com/icons/social-block-v2/dark-facebook-48.png"
                                                          alt="Facebook"
style="display: block;border: 0;height: auto;outline:
                                                          none;text-decoration:
none;-ms-interpolation-mode: bicubic;" class="" moz-do-not-send="true"
                                                          width="24"
                                                          height="24"></a>
                                                          </td>
                                                          </tr>
                                                          </tbody>
                                                          </table>
                                                          </td>
                                                          </tr>
                                                          </tbody>
                                                          </table>
                                                          </td>
                                                          </tr>
                                                          </tbody>
                                                        </table>
                                                        <!--[if mso]>
                                        </td>
                                        <![endif]-->
                                                        <!--[if mso]>
                                        <td align="center" valign="top">
                                        <![endif]-->
                                                        <table
                                                          style="display:
inline;border-collapse: collapse;mso-table-lspace: 0pt;mso-table-rspace:
0pt;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;"
                                                          cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0" border="0" align="left">
                                                          <tbody>
                                                          <tr>
                                                          <td
                                                          style="padding-right:
10px;padding-bottom: 9px;mso-line-height-rule:
                                                          exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;"
                                                          class="mcnFollowContentItemContainer"
                                                          valign="top">
                                                          <table
                                                          class="mcnFollowContentItem"
style="border-collapse: collapse;mso-table-lspace: 0pt;mso-table-rspace:
0pt;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;"
                                                          width="100%"
                                                          cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0" border="0">
                                                          <tbody>
                                                          <tr>
                                                          <td
                                                          style="padding-top:
5px;padding-right: 10px;padding-bottom: 5px;padding-left:
                                                          9px;mso-line-height-rule:
exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;"
                                                          valign="middle"
                                                          align="left">
                                                          <table
                                                          style="border-collapse:
collapse;mso-table-lspace: 0pt;mso-table-rspace:
                                                          0pt;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;" width="" cellspacing="0"
                                                          cellpadding="0"
                                                          border="0"
                                                          align="left">
                                                          <tbody>
                                                          <tr>
                                                          <td
                                                          class="mcnFollowIconContent"
style="mso-line-height-rule: exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
                                                          100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust:
                                                          100%;"
                                                          width="24"
                                                          valign="middle"
                                                          align="center">
                                                          <a
href="https://leftword.us11.list-manage.com/track/click?u=6a79324d3b4acfde1e7e546c6&id=ea3d9596b1&e=d206d0a40d"
target="_blank" style="mso-line-height-rule:
                                                          exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;" moz-do-not-send="true"><img
src="https://cdn-images.mailchimp.com/icons/social-block-v2/dark-twitter-48.png"
                                                          alt="Twitter"
style="display: block;border: 0;height: auto;outline:
                                                          none;text-decoration:
none;-ms-interpolation-mode: bicubic;" class="" moz-do-not-send="true"
                                                          width="24"
                                                          height="24"></a>
                                                          </td>
                                                          </tr>
                                                          </tbody>
                                                          </table>
                                                          </td>
                                                          </tr>
                                                          </tbody>
                                                          </table>
                                                          </td>
                                                          </tr>
                                                          </tbody>
                                                        </table>
                                                        <!--[if mso]>
                                        </td>
                                        <![endif]-->
                                                        <!--[if mso]>
                                        <td align="center" valign="top">
                                        <![endif]-->
                                                        <table
                                                          style="display:
inline;border-collapse: collapse;mso-table-lspace: 0pt;mso-table-rspace:
0pt;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;"
                                                          cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0" border="0" align="left">
                                                          <tbody>
                                                          <tr>
                                                          <td
                                                          style="padding-right:
0;padding-bottom: 9px;mso-line-height-rule:
                                                          exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;"
                                                          class="mcnFollowContentItemContainer"
                                                          valign="top">
                                                          <table
                                                          class="mcnFollowContentItem"
style="border-collapse: collapse;mso-table-lspace: 0pt;mso-table-rspace:
0pt;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;"
                                                          width="100%"
                                                          cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0" border="0">
                                                          <tbody>
                                                          <tr>
                                                          <td
                                                          style="padding-top:
5px;padding-right: 10px;padding-bottom: 5px;padding-left:
                                                          9px;mso-line-height-rule:
exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;"
                                                          valign="middle"
                                                          align="left">
                                                          <table
                                                          style="border-collapse:
collapse;mso-table-lspace: 0pt;mso-table-rspace:
                                                          0pt;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;" width="" cellspacing="0"
                                                          cellpadding="0"
                                                          border="0"
                                                          align="left">
                                                          <tbody>
                                                          <tr>
                                                          <td
                                                          class="mcnFollowIconContent"
style="mso-line-height-rule: exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
                                                          100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust:
                                                          100%;"
                                                          width="24"
                                                          valign="middle"
                                                          align="center">
                                                          <a
href="https://leftword.us11.list-manage.com/track/click?u=6a79324d3b4acfde1e7e546c6&id=92e20f386b&e=d206d0a40d"
target="_blank" style="mso-line-height-rule:
                                                          exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;" moz-do-not-send="true"><img
src="https://cdn-images.mailchimp.com/icons/social-block-v2/dark-instagram-48.png"
alt="Instagram" style="display: block;border: 0;height: auto;outline:
                                                          none;text-decoration:
none;-ms-interpolation-mode: bicubic;" class="" moz-do-not-send="true"
                                                          width="24"
                                                          height="24"></a>
                                                          </td>
                                                          </tr>
                                                          </tbody>
                                                          </table>
                                                          </td>
                                                          </tr>
                                                          </tbody>
                                                          </table>
                                                          </td>
                                                          </tr>
                                                          </tbody>
                                                        </table>
                                                        <!--[if mso]>
                                        </td>
                                        <![endif]-->
                                                        <!--[if mso]>
                                    </tr>
                                    </table>
                                    <![endif]--> </td>
                                                    </tr>
                                                  </tbody>
                                                </table>
                                              </td>
                                            </tr>
                                          </tbody>
                                        </table>
                                      </td>
                                    </tr>
                                  </tbody>
                                </table>
                              </td>
                            </tr>
                          </tbody>
                        </table>
                      </td>
                    </tr>
                  </tbody>
                </table>
                <!--[if (gte mso 9)|(IE)]>
                        </td>
                        </tr>
                        </table>
                        <![endif]-->
                <!-- // END TEMPLATE --> </td>
            </tr>
          </tbody>
        </table>
      </center>
      <center> <br>
        <br>
        <br>
        <br>
        <br>
        <br>
        <table id="canspamBarWrapper" style="background-color:
          #FFFFFF;border-top: 1px solid #E5E5E5;border-collapse:
          collapse;mso-table-lspace: 0pt;mso-table-rspace:
          0pt;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust:
          100%;" width="100%" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="0">
          <tbody>
            <tr>
              <td style="padding-top: 20px;padding-bottom:
                20px;mso-line-height-rule: exactly;-ms-text-size-adjust:
                100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;" valign="top"
                align="center"><br>
              </td>
            </tr>
          </tbody>
        </table>
      </center>
      <img
src="https://leftword.us11.list-manage.com/track/open.php?u=6a79324d3b4acfde1e7e546c6&id=e6ef22c2f4&e=d206d0a40d"
        alt="" moz-do-not-send="true" width="1" height="1">
    </div>
  </body>
</html>