[News] Insane U.S. Plan to Spend Billions on Weaponizing Space Makes Defense Contractors Jump for Joy—But Rest of World Cowers in Horror at Prospect of New Arms Race Leading to World War III

Anti-Imperialist News news at freedomarchives.org
Wed Aug 25 11:09:49 EDT 2021


covertactionmagazine.com 
<https://covertactionmagazine.com/2021/08/25/insane-u-s-plan-to-spend-billions-on-weaponizing-space-makes-defense-contractors-jump-for-joy-but-rest-of-world-cowers-in-horror-at-prospect-of-new-arms-race-leading-to-world-war-iii/> 



  Insane U.S. Plan to Spend Billions on Weaponizing Space Makes Defense
  Contractors Jump for Joy—But Rest of World Cowers in Horror at
  Prospect of New Arms Race Leading to World War III

Karl Grossman - August 25, 2021
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Weapons are already being developed for the First Space War
Weapons are already being developed for the first space war. [Source: 
thesun.co.uk 
<https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/7970143/space-war-weapons-satellites-shoot-down/>] 


Imagine this scenario from the year 2045: The U.S. and China, after 
years of belligerence, go to war over control of the Taiwan straits; 
most of the battles are fought through cyber-attacks and space-based 
weapons systems that had been perfected over the previous decades.

In a desperate maneuver, the U.S. activates its “rods from God”—a scheme 
developed in Project Thor involving telephone-pole-sized tungsten rods 
being dropped from orbit reaching a speed ten times the speed of sound 
[7,500 miles per hour] hitting with the force of nuclear weapons 
<https://www.businessinsider.com/air-force-rods-from-god-kinetic-weapon-hit-with-nuclear-weapon-force-2017-9>—and 
Beijing’s military command centers and other significant targets are 
destroyed.

Global-Security-2-Koz
“Rods from God” weapon system. [Source: readingthepictgures.org 
<https://www.readingthepictures.org/2007/11/rods-from-god/>]

The above scenario looks increasingly plausible given a) the growing 
prospect of war between the U.S. and China; and b) the growing 
militarization of space by the U.S.—in violation of the landmark Outer 
Space Treaty of 1967 that sets aside space “for peaceful purposes.”

Space arms race as Russia, China emerge as 'rapidly growing threats' to US
China-U.S. rivalry for control over Outer Space. [Source: cnbc.com 
<https://www.cnbc.com/2017/03/29/space-arms-race-as-russia-china-emerge-as-rapidly-growing-threats-to-us.html>] 



    *U.S. Space Force and the Evisceration of the 1967 Outer Space Treaty*

Donald Trump declared at a meeting of the National Space Council of the 
U.S. in 2018 that “it is not enough to merely have an American presence 
in space, we must have American dominance in space 
<https://www.huffpost.com/entry/trump-space-force-twitter-ridicule_n_5b27fb28e4b05d6c16c5e091>…. 
I’m hereby directing the Department of Defense and Pentagon to 
immediately begin the process necessary to establish a Space Force as 
the sixth branch of the armed forces … It is going to be something.”

Trump got a space force. Biden should get a cyber force. | The Japan Times
Donald Trump inspects the Space Force flag. [Source: japantimes.co 
<https://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2021/02/05/commentary/world-commentary/trump-space-force-biden-cyber-force/>] 


Indeed, the U.S. Space Force, established in December 2019, is 
/something/—and can, if not /will/, destroy the visionary Outer Space 
Treaty of keeping space for peace.

The Outer Space Treaty 
<https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/outerspace> of 1967 was put 
together by the U.S., Great Britain and the former Soviet Union and has 
wide support from nations around the world. 111 countries are parties to 
the treaty, while another 23 have signed the treaty but have not 
completed ratification. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outer_Space_Treaty>

A group of people sitting at a table Description automatically generated 
with low confidence
Signing of 1967 Outer Space Treaty. [Source: theverge.com 
<https://www.theverge.com/2017/1/27/14398492/outer-space-treaty-50-anniversary-exploration-guidelines>] 


As Craig Eisendrath, who as a young U.S. State Department officer was 
involved in the treaty’s creation, told me—and I quote him in my book 
/Weapons in Space/ 
<https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/214007/weapons-in-space-by-karl-grossman-foreword-by-dr-michio-kaku/>—“we 
sought to de-weaponize space before it got weaponized … to keep war out 
of space.”

“This foundational treaty has allowed for half a century of ever 
expanding peaceful activity in space, free from man-made threats,” 
<https://www.springerprofessional.de/en/arms-control-in-outer-space-a-diplomatic-alternative-to-star-war/19054258> 
writes Paul Meyer, in his chapter “Arms Control in Outer Space: A 
Diplomatic Alternative to Star Wars” in the book /Security in the Global 
Commons and Beyond/.^^[1]

The Outer Space Treaty bars placement “in orbit around the Earth any 
objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass 
destruction or from installing such weapons on celestial bodies.”

A picture containing person, floor, posing, group Description 
automatically generated
Vice Chief of Space Operations General David Thompson swears in the 
first four enlisted recruits to the Space Force at Military Entrance 
Processing Station-Baltimore in Maryland on October 20, 2020. [Source: 
defensenews.com 
<https://www.defensenews.com/space/2021/02/03/with-the-full-support-of-the-biden-adminisration-the-space-force-is-officially-here-to-stay/>] 



    *Biden Signs Off on Space Force*

Republican Trump’s successor as U.S. president, Democrat Joe Biden, has 
not pulled back on the U.S. Space Force. As /Defense News /headlined in 
2021: “With Biden’s ‘full support,’ the Space Force is officially here 
to stay.” 
<https://www.defensenews.com/space/2021/02/03/with-the-full-support-of-the-biden-adminisration-the-space-force-is-officially-here-to-stay/>

Its article opened: “U.S. President Joe Biden will not seek to eliminate 
the Space Force and roll military space functions back into the Air 
Force, the White House confirmed.” It continued: “White House 
spokeswoman Jen Psaki told reporters during a Feb. 3 briefing that the 
new service has the ‘full support’ of the Biden administration.” And it 
went on: “‘We’re not revisiting the decision,’ she said.”

Most Democrats in the U.S. Congress voted for the legislation providing 
for formation of the U.S. Space Force as pushed by Trump. All 
Republicans in the U.S. Congress voted for it.

A picture containing smoke, transport, dark, rocket Description 
automatically generated
Rocket launches from New Zealand carrying experimental Air Force 
Research Laboratory Satellite into low earth orbit on July 29, 2021. 
[Source: c4isrnet.com 
<https://www.c4isrnet.com/battlefield-tech/space/2021/07/29/space-force-launches-small-satellite-to-test-new-sensor-possibilities/>] 



    *False Pretext*

For decades there has been an effort to extend the Outer Space Treaty 
and enact the Prevention of an Arms Race, the PAROS treaty, which would 
bar /any /weapons in space.

China, Russia (and U.S. neighbor Canada) have been leaders in seeking 
passage of the PAROS treaty. But the U.S.—through administration after 
administration, Republican and Democrat—has opposed the PAROS treaty and 
effectively vetoed it at the United Nations.

Although the PAROS treaty has broad backing from nations around the 
world, it must move through the UN’s Conference on Disarmament which 
functions on a consensual basis.

A rationale for the U.S. Space Force now being claimed is that it is 
necessary to counter moves by China and Russia in space, particularly 
development of anti-satellite weapons.

Space Force Launches First Mission in Cape Canaveral, US
U.S. space-based anti-satellite weapons. [Source: popularmechanics.com 
<https://www.popularmechanics.com/military/weapons/a32008306/anti-satellite-weapons/>] 
China Holds Military Parade To Commemorate End Of World War II In Asia
The DF-21D medium range ballistic missile. The -C variant is believed to 
act as the ascent vehicle for a Chinese anti-satellite weapon system. 
[Source: popularmechanics.com 
<https://www.popularmechanics.com/military/weapons/a32008306/anti-satellite-weapons/>] 


That is what a CNN report in August 2021, titled “An Exclusive Look into 
How Space Force Is Defending America,” 
<https://www.cnn.com/videos/business/2021/08/06/space-force-defense-sciutto-pkg-nr-vpx.cnn> 
centrally asserted. There was no mention in the six-minute-plus CNN 
piece of how China and Russia (and Canada) have led for decades in the 
push for PAROS, and how China and Russia in recent times have reiterated 
their calls for space to be weapons-free.

“We are calling on the international community to start negotiations and 
reach agreement on arms control in order to ensure space safety as soon 
as possible 
<https://spacefeed.tech/index.php/2021/04/17/chinese-foreign-ministry-calls-for-promptly-starting-talks-on-space-arms-control/>,” 
said the Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson, Zhao Lijian, in April 
2021. “China has always been in favor of preventing an arms race in 
space; it has been actively promoting negotiations on a legally binding 
agreement on space arms control jointly with Russia.”

A day earlier, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov called for talks 
to create an “international legally binding instrument” 
<https://www.spacewar.com/reports/Russia_Calls_for_Talks_on_Binding_Treaty_to_Prohibit_Weapons_in_Space___Lavrov_999.html> 
to ban the deployment of “any types of weapons” in space.  Lavrov said: 
“We consistently believe that only a guaranteed prevention of an arms 
race in space will make it possible to use it for creative purposes, for 
the benefit of the entire mankind. We call for negotiations on the 
development of an international legally binding instrument that would 
prohibit the deployment of any types of weapons there, as well as the 
use of force or the threat of force. 
<https://www.spacewar.com/reports/Russia_Calls_for_Talks_on_Binding_Treaty_to_Prohibit_Weapons_in_Space___Lavrov_999.html>”

A person in a suit and tie Description automatically generated with 
medium confidence/
Russian Foreign Minister/ Sergey Lavrov [Source: thefamouspeople.com 
<https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/sergey-lavrov-10755.php>]


    *Onward and Upward!*

Meanwhile, the U.S. Space Force drives ahead.

It has requested a budget of $17.4 billion for 2020 to “grow the 
service,” reports /Air Force Magazine./ 
<https://www.airforcemag.com/space-force-2022-budget-request/> “Space 
Force 2022 Budget Adds Satellites, Warfighting Center, More Guardians,” 
was the headline of its article. And in the first paragraph, it adds 
“and fund more than $800 million in new classified programs.” 
(“Guardians” is the name adopted by the U.S. Space Force in 2021 for its 
members.)

A group of men in military uniforms Description automatically generated 
with medium confidence
Source: militarymachine.com <https://militarymachine.com/space-force/>]

One after another, U.S. Air Force bases are being renamed U.S. Space 
Force bases.

Patrick Air Force Base, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Officially 
Renamed as Space Force Installations
Newly renamed Space Force base at Cape Canaveral in Florida. [Source: 
spacecoastdaily.com 
<https://spacecoastdaily.com/2020/12/patrick-air-force-base-cape-canaveral-air-force-station-officially-renamed-as-space-force-installations/>] 


A recruitment drive is under way.

The U.S. Space Force “received its first offensive weapon … satellite 
jammers,” reported /American Military News/ in 2020 
<https://americanmilitarynews.com/2020/04/us-space-force-has-its-first-offensive-weapon-heres-what-it-does/>. 
“The weapon does not destroy enemy satellites, but can be used to 
interrupt enemy satellite communications and hinder enemy early warning 
systems meant to detect a U.S. attack,” it stated.

U.S. Space Force's First Offensive Weapon Is a Satellite Jammer
Space Force Guardians in front of satellite jammers—the Space Force’s 
first offensive weapon. [Source: interestingengineering.com 
<https://interestingengineering.com/us-space-forces-first-offensive-weapon-is-a-satellite-jammer>] 


Soon afterwards, the /Financial Times’s /headline: “U.S military 
officials eye new generation of space weapons.” 
<https://www.ft.com/content/d44aa332-f564-4b4a-89b7-1685e4579e72>

In 2001, the headline on the c4isrnet.com <http://c4isrnet.com> website, 
which describes itself as “Media for the Intelligence Age Military,” 
declared: “The Space Force wants to use directed-energy systems for 
space superiority.” 
<https://www.c4isrnet.com/battlefield-tech/space/2021/06/16/the-space-force-wants-to-use-directed-energy-weapons-for-space-superiority/>


Directed-energy weapon. [Source: exonews.org 
<https://exonews.org/space-forces-use-of-directed-energy-weapons-to-maintain-space-superiority/>] 



    *Resistance is Futile*

A personal experience with the U.S. anti-PAROS stand occurred in March 
1999. In /Weapons in Space, /I told of giving the keynote address at a 
seminar at the UN titled “The Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer 
Space.” The event was organized by the Women’s International League for 
Peace and Freedom. On the following day, another vote on the PAROS 
treaty was to be held at the UN in Geneva.

As part of my presentation, I displayed various documents, including a 
1998 report of the U.S. Space Command titled /Vision for 2020/ 
<https://thecommunity.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Vision2020.pdf>/. 
/(The U.S. Space Command was formed in 1982 as part of the U.S. Air 
Force to be succeeded by the U.S. Space Force.)

“US Space Command—dominating the space dimension of military operations 
to protect US interests and investment. Integrating Space Forces into 
war-fighting capabilities across the full spectrum of conflict,” 
trumpeted /Vision for 2020. /

I noted /Vision for 2020/ saying, “Historically, military forces have 
evolved to protect national interests and investments—both military and 
economic.” Nations built navies, says Vision for 2020, “to protect and 
enhance their commercial interests” and, during “the westward expansion 
of the United States, military outposts and the cavalry emerged to 
protect our wagon trains, settlements and railroads. The emergence of 
space power follows both of these models. During the early portion of 
the 21st Century, space power will also evolve into a separate and equal 
medium of warfare.”


[Source: spikeybits.com 
<https://spikeybits.com/2018/12/40k-unit-we-need-orbital-bombardment-satellite.html>] 


I displayed the comments of U.S. Space Command Commander-in-Chief Joseph 
W. Ashy in /Aviation Week and Space Technology /in 1996: “It’s 
politically sensitive, but it’s going to happen,” said the general 
<http://cpsr.org/prevsite/publications/newsletters/issues/2001/Spring/boxes.html/>. 
“Some people don’t want to hear this … but—absolutely—we’re going to 
fight in space. We’re going to fight /from /space and we’re going to 
fight /into /space…. We will engage terrestrial targets someday—ships, 
airplanes, land targets—from space.” (Original italics)

I displayed a photo of the entrance of the headquarters in Colorado of 
the 50^th Space Wing of the U.S. Air Force emblazoned with the unit’s 
motto: “Master of Space.” 
<https://www.kpbs.org/news/2019/may/17/while-trumps-space-force-sits-launchpad-military-s/> 
The 50^th Space Wing is now a component of the U.S. Space Force.

Staff Sgt. Eric Proctor of the 50th Security Forces Squadron, 
responsible for...
Staff Sgt. Eric Proctor of the 50^th Security Forces Squadron, 
responsible for the security and protection of Air Force Space Command 
assets on Schriever Air Force Base in Colorado, is pictured in this 
undated photo. [Source: kpbs.org 
<https://www.kpbs.org/news/2019/may/17/while-trumps-space-force-sits-launchpad-military-s/>] 


I spoke of the “military use of space being planned by the U.S.” being 
“in total contradiction of the principles of peaceful international 
cooperation that the U.S. likes to espouse” and “pushes us—all of us—to 
war in the heavens.”

I was followed by Wang Xiaoyu, first secretary of the Delegation of 
China <https://fas.org/nuke/control/paros/news/990310-outer.htm>. “Outer 
space is the common heritage of the human beings,” he said. “It should 
be used entirely for peaceful purposes and for the economic, scientific 
and cultural development of all countries as well as the well-being of 
mankind. It must not be weaponized and become another arena of the arms 
race.”

The U.S., he said, “has over the years continued its efforts in 
developing space weapons with a view to deploying such advanced weapon 
systems in outer space in the near future. Huge amount[s] of human, 
material and financial resources have already been put into relevant 
plans and programs.

The momentum has recently been greatly intensified. These ominous 
efforts will bring about the weaponization of outer space and lead to an 
arms race there. So, PAROS has already become a present and pressing 
issue <https://fas.org/nuke/control/paros/news/990310-outer.htm>.”

The next day, on my way to observe the vote, I saw a U.S. diplomat who 
had been at my presentation—and it was clear from his facial expressions 
during it that he was not happy with my remarks.

We approached each other and on an anonymous basis, he said he would 
like to explain the U.S. position on militarizing space. As related in 
/Weapons in Space, /he said that the U.S has trouble with its citizenry 
in fielding a large number of troops on the ground. But “we can project 
power from space” and, said the official, that is why the U.S. military 
was moving in that direction. I said if the U.S. moved ahead with this, 
would not other nations respond in kind?

He replied that the U.S. military had done analyses and determined that 
China was “30 years behind” in competing with the U.S. militarily in 
space and Russia “doesn’t have the money.” I contested that and said a 
huge, potentially catastrophic, miscalculation was being made. We parted 
in disagreement.

Then he went to vote and I watched as again nation after nation voted 
for the PAROS treaty—and the diplomat I had spoken to cast a “no” vote 
for the U.S.

PAROS was blocked once again.

A plane flying in the sky Description automatically generated with low 
confidence
Named after John Glenn, the first American to orbit the Earth, the New 
Glenn will be capable of putting a payload into orbit. [Source: ft.com 
<https://www.ft.com/content/e07c7a9e-1cf7-11e7-a454-ab04428977f9>]

And this was during the time of the Democratic Clinton administration.

Later that day, I sat in the UN cafeteria with a group of young Chinese 
diplomats who said that, if the U.S. moved into space militarily, China 
would too. “But we don’t want to,” emphasized one. Rather, he said, 
China wants to use its resources to educate, house, feed and provide 
medical care for its people.


    *Star Wars and America’s Nazis*

U.S. interest in militarizing and weaponizing space goes back well 
before the /Vision for 2020 /and other bellicose U.S. plans for space in 
the 1990s, or Ronald Reagan’s Strategic Defense Initiative dubbed “Star 
Wars,” <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strategic_Defense_Initiative> in 
the 1980s. Its roots are with the former Nazi rocket scientists and 
engineers brought to the U.S. from Germany after World War II under the 
U.S.’s Operation Paperclip, where more than 1,600 German scientists, 
engineers and technicians were taken from former Nazi Germany to the 
U.S. for government employment after the end of World War II in Europe, 
between 1945 and 1959.

23 March 1983: President Ronald Reagan Proposes The Strategic Defense 
Initiative (SDI), Better Known As 'Star Wars'
Ronald Reagan giving speech announcing the Strategic Defense Initiative 
(SDI) in March 1983. [Source: linkedin.com 
<https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/23-march-1983-president-ronald-reagan-proposes-sdi-jim>] 


They ended up at the U.S. Army’s Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, 
Alabama—to use “their technological expertise to help create the U.S. 
space and weapons program,” writes Jack Manno, a State University of New 
York professor, in his 1984 book /Arming the Heavens: The Hidden 
Military Agenda for Space, 1945-1995/ 
<https://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0396082122/counterpunchmaga> 
(1984).

“Many of the early space war schemes were dreamt up by scientists 
working for the German military, scientists who brought their rockets 
and their ideas to America after the war,” he writes. Many of these 
scientists and engineers “later rose to positions of power in the U.S. 
military, NASA, and the aerospace industry.”

Among them were “Wernher von Braun and his V-2 colleagues,” who began 
“working on rockets for the U.S. Army” and, at the Redstone Arsenal, 
“were given the task of producing an intermediate range ballistic 
missile to carry battlefield atomic weapons up to 200 miles. The Germans 
produced a modified V-2 renamed the Redstone…. Huntsville became a major 
center of U.S. space military activities.”

A person standing in front of a tall tower Description automatically 
generated with low confidence
Wernher von Braun, former Nazi scientist at Huntsville facility in 
Alabama. [Source: encyclopediaofalabama.org 
<http://encyclopediaofalabama.org/article/h-2349>]

Manno tells the story of former German Major General Walter Dornberger, 
who had been in charge of the entire Nazi rocket program, and how he 
“in 1947 as a consultant to the U.S Air Force and adviser to the 
Department of Defense … wrote a planning paper for his new employers.

He proposed a system of hundreds of nuclear-armed satellites all 
orbiting at different altitudes and angles, each capable of re-entering 
the atmosphere on command from Earth to proceed to its target. The Air 
Force began early work on Dornberger’s idea under the acronym NABS 
(Nuclear Armed Bombardment Satellites).”

In my subsequent /Weapons in Space, /Manno tells me that “control over 
the Earth” was what those who have wanted to weaponize space seek. He 
said the Nazi scientists are an important “historical and technical 
link, and also an ideological link…. The aim is to … have the capacity 
to carry out global warfare, including weapons systems that reside in 
space.”

Dornberger’s nuclear link continues in various forms throughout the U.S. 
military space program. The Strategic Defense Initiative scheme of 
Reagan—although this was barely disclosed at the time—was predicated on 
orbiting battle platforms with on-board hypervelocity guns, particle 
beams and laser weapons. They were to be energized by on-board nuclear 
reactors.


Laser weapons in SDI. [Source: nationalinterest.org 
<https://nationalinterest.org/blog/buzz/meet-zenith-star-americas-first-attempt-weaponizing-lasers-1980s-152421>] 


As General James Abrahamson, SDI director, said at a Symposium on Space 
Nuclear Power and Propulsion, “without reactors in orbit [there is] 
going to be a long, long light [extension] cord that goes down to the 
surface of the Earth” to bring up power to energize space weaponry.^^[2]


Lt. Gen. James Abrahamson and President Ronald Reagan at Strategic 
Defense Initiative Labs. [Source: wikipedia.org 
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_A._Abrahamson>]


    *New World Vistas*

A 1996 U.S. Air Force report, /New World Vistas: Air and Space Power for 
the 21st Century/ 
<https://www.amazon.com/New-world-vistas-century-applications/dp/B00010R4J4>, 
speaks of how “new technologies will allow the fielding of space-based 
weapons of devastating effectiveness to be used to deliver energy and 
mass as force projection in tactical and strategic conflict. These 
advances will enable lasers with reasonable mass and cost to effect very 
many kills.”

However, “power limitations impose restrictions” on such space weaponry 
making them “relatively unfeasible,” but “a natural technology to enable 
high power is nuclear power in space.” Says the report: “Setting the 
emotional issues of nuclear power aside, this technology offers a viable 
alternative for large amounts of power in space.”

This linkage continues.

A 104-page report issued by the National Academies of Sciences, 
Engineering and Medicine in 2021 entitled /Space Nuclear Propulsion for 
Human Mars Exploration/ declared: “Space nuclear propulsion and power 
systems have the potential to provide the United States with military 
advantages.” 
<https://www.nap.edu/catalog/25977/space-nuclear-propulsion-for-human-mars-exploration>

Nuclear Propulsion Could Be 'Game-Changer' for Space Exploration, NASA 
Chief Says | Space
An illustration of a spacecraft powered by nuclear thermal propulsion. 
[Source: space.com 
<https://www.space.com/nuclear-propulsion-future-spacecraft-nasa-chief.html>] 


The report’s central focus is the advocacy of rocket propulsion by 
nuclear power for U.S. missions to Mars and lays out “synergies” in 
space nuclear activities between NASA and the U.S. military.

Mars landscape acquired by Nasa's Perseverance rover, using its left 
Mastcam-Z camera, on 27 March 2021
Mars. [Source: bbc.com <https://www.bbc.com/news/in-pictures-57233756>]

On December 19, 2021, just before he was to leave office, Trump signed 
Space Policy Directive-6, titled “National Strategy for Space Nuclear 
Power and Propulsion.” 
<https://trumpwhitehouse.archives.gov/presidential-actions/memorandum-national-strategy-space-nuclear-power-propulsion-space-policy-directive-6/>

Its provisions include: “DoD [Department of Defense] and NASA, in 
cooperation with DOE [Department of Energy], and with other agencies and 
private-sector partners, as appropriate, should evaluate technology 
options and associated key technical challenges for an NTP [Nuclear 
Thermal Propulsion] system, including reactor designs, power conversion, 
and thermal management. DoD and NASA should work with their partners to 
evaluate and use opportunities for commonality with other SNPP [Space 
Nuclear Power and Propulsion] needs, terrestrial power needs, and 
reactor demonstration projects planned by agencies and the private sector.”

It continues: “DoD, in coordination with DOE and other agencies, and 
with private sector partners, as appropriate, should develop reactor and 
propulsion system technologies that will resolve the key technical 
challenges in areas such as reactor design and production, propulsion 
system and spacecraft design, and SNPP system integration.”

The members of the committee that put together the report for the 
National Academies included executives of the aerospace and nuclear 
industry—a key element in U.S. space policy.

For example, as the report states, there were: Jonathan W. Cirtain, 
president of Advanced Technologies, “a subsidiary of BWX Technologies 
which is the sole manufacturer of nuclear reactors for the U.S. Navy”; 
Roger M. Myers, owner of R. Myers Consulting and who previously at 
Aerojet Rocketdyne “oversaw programs and strategic planning for 
next-generation in-space missions [that] included nuclear thermal 
propulsion and nuclear electric power systems; and Joseph A. Sholtis, 
Jr., “owner and principal of Sholtis Engineering & Safety Consulting, 
providing expert nuclear, aerospace, and systems engineering services to 
government, national laboratories, industry, and academia since 1993.”

And so on.

  * Jonathan W. Cirtain, Ph.D. - BWX Technologies, Inc. | People Strong,
    Innovation Driven
    Jonathan Cirtain [Source: bwxt.com
    <https://www.bwxt.com/about/management-team/jonathan-w-cirtain>]
  * Roger Myers, PhD
    Roger Myers [Source: linkedin.com
    <https://www.linkedin.com/in/roger-myers-phd-4a329595>]
  * Joseph A. Sholtis, Jr. - Consultant - Jet Propulsion Laboratory
    (Consultant) | LinkedIn
    Joseph A. Sholtis, Jr. [Source: linkedin.com
    <https://www.linkedin.com/in/joseph-a-sholtis-jr-39881034>]


    *“Rigged Game in Washington”*

The Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space was formed 
in 1992 at a meeting in Washington, D.C., and has been the leading group 
internationally challenging the weaponization and nuclearization of space.

Nuclear Hotseat #276: NUKES IN SPACE - Bruce Gagnon of Global Network 
Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space - Nuclear Hotseat
[Source: nuclearhotseat.com 
<http://nuclearhotseat.com/2016/10/05/nuclear-hotseat-276-nukes-in-space-bruce-gagnon-of-global-network-against-weapons-and-nuclear-power-in-space/>] 


Its coordinator, Bruce Gagnon, in a 2021 interview with me, said: “The 
aerospace industry has long proclaimed that ‘Star Wars’ would be the 
largest industrial project in human history. Add the nuclear industry’s 
ambition to use space as its ‘new market,’ and one can imagine the money 
that would be involved. These two industry giants have put their 
resources together to ensure their ‘control and domination’ of the U.S. 
Congress. Both political parties are virtually locked down when it comes 
to appropriating funds to move the arms race into space and to colonize 
the heavens for corporate profits. Just one example is the recent 
approval in Congress of the creation of the ‘Space Force’ as a new 
service branch in the military.”

“During the Trump administration (with the Democrats in control of the 
House of Representatives) the Space Force was ‘stood up’ as they like to 
say in the biz,” said Gagnon. “The Democrats could have stopped the 
creation of this new military branch. During the little congressional 
debate that did occur, the only thing the Democrats requested was to 
call it the ‘Space Corps’ (like the Marine Corps). It’s a rigged game in 
Washington when it comes to handing out money to the aerospace industry.”

Gagnon continued: “In his book, /The Pentagon’s New Map: War and Peace 
in the 2lst Century/ 
<https://www.amazon.com/Pentagons-New-Map-Twenty-First-Century/dp/0425202399>, 
former Navy War College Professor Thomas Barnett writes that, under 
globalization of the world economy, every country will have a different 
role. We won’t produce shoes, cars, phones, washing machines and the 
like in the U.S. anymore because it is cheaper for industry to exploit 
labor in the global south.

Our role in the U.S., Barnett says, will be ‘security export.’ That 
means we will endlessly fight wars in the parts of the world where 
nations are not yet ‘fully integrated’ into corporate capitalism. Having 
a dominant military in space would enable the US to see, hear and target 
everything on the Earth.”

“In order to put together a global ‘Leviathan’ military capability,” 
Gagnon continued, “space must be militarized and weaponized. The cost of 
doing so is enormous and requires cuts in social and environmental 
spending and larger contributions from NATO member nations.”

“In addition to using space technology to control Earth on behalf of 
corporate capital, the new Space Force will have another key job. They 
will be tasked with attempting to control the pathway on and off the 
planet Earth. In the 1989 Congressional Study entitled /Military Space 
Forces: The Next 50 Years/ 
<http://coat.ncf.ca/our_magazine/links/55/Articles/55_12-13.pdf>, 
congressional staffer John Collins writes on pages 24 and 25: “Nature 
reserves decisive advantage for L4 and L5, two allegedly stable [space] 
libration points that theoretically could dominate Earth and moon, 
because they look down both gravity wells. No other location is equally 
commanding 
<https://coat.ncf.ca/our_magazine/links/55/Articles/55_12-13.pdf>…. 
Armed forces might lie in wait at that location to hijack rival 
shipments on return.”


    *Privatized Gold Rush*

“The Pentagon is looking to a future where space would be fully 
privatized and a new gold rush would ensue. Corporations and rich 
fat-cats like Jeff Bezos, Elon Musk and Richard Branson, while ignoring 
the UN’s Outer Space and Moon Treaties that call the heavens the 
‘province of all mankind,’ would move to control the shipping lanes from 
Earth into space. The Space Force would be used by these ‘space 
entrepreneurs’ as their own private pirate forces to ensure they 
controlled the extraction of resources mined from planetary bodies. This 
provocative vision would in the end recreate the global war system, 
which has been deeply embedded into the culture and consciousness here 
on Earth. Russia, China and other space-faring nations are not going to 
allow the US to be the ‘Master of Space.’”

Jeff Bezos: Blue Origin and Amazon founder | Space
Jeff Bezos: Space Pirate. [Source: space.com 
<https://www.space.com/19341-jeff-bezos.html>]


    *Planting Earth’s Toxic Residue in the Heavens and the Fight to Stop It*

Says Gagnon: “I call this the bad seed of greed, war and environmental 
devastation that we are poised to plant into the heavens.”

“It is my hope that the global public would quickly awaken to a deep 
understanding and not allow corporate oligarchs or the military to 
encircle our planet with so much space junk that we would be forever 
entombed on Earth, or continue to punch a hole in the Earth’s delicate 
ozone layer from toxic rocket exhaust after each of their tens of 
thousands of coming launches, or ruin the sacred night sky with blinking 
satellites for 5G that will in the end be used by the Space Force for 
expanded ‘space situational awareness’ and targeting capabilities.”

Space junk: The cluttered frontier | MIT News | Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology
Space junk. [Source: news.mit.edu 
<https://news.mit.edu/2017/space-junk-shards-teflon-0619>]

“We have reached the point in human history where we need the immediate 
intervention by the citizen taxpayers of the planet to ensure that our 
tiny orbiting satellite called Earth remains livable for the future 
generations,” Gagnon declared. “We can’t fall for the public relations 
story-line of the cowboy sailing off into space to discover the new 
world. We know how that movie turns out in the end—just ask the Native 
American people.”

U.S. Army Colonel John Fairlamb (Ret.), in 2021 wrote in /The Hill, /the 
Washington, D.C., news website: “Let’s be clear: Deploying weapons in 
space crosses a threshold that cannot be walked back.” Fairlamb’s 
background includes being International Affairs Specialist for the Army 
Space and Missile Defense Command and Military Assistant to the U.S. 
Secretary of State for Political Military Affairs.

“Given the implications for strategic stability, and the likelihood that 
such a decision [to deploy weapons in space] by any nation would set off 
an expensive space arms race in which any advantage gained would likely 
be temporary, engaging now to prevent such a debacle seems warranted,” 
wrote Fairlamb.

His piece was headed: “The U.S. should negotiate a ban on basing weapons 
in space.”

“It’s time,” Fairlamb wrote, “for arms control planning to address the 
issues raised by this drift toward militarization of space. Space is a 
place where billions of defense dollars can evaporate quickly and result 
in more threats about which to be concerned. Russia and China have been 
proposing mechanisms for space arms control at the United Nations for 
years; it’s time for the U.S. to cooperate in this effort.”

As Alice Slater, a member of the boards of both the Global Network 
Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space and the organization World 
BEYOND War, says: “The U.S. mission to dominate and control the military 
use of space has been, historically and at present, a major obstacle to 
achieving nuclear disarmament and a peaceful path to preserve all life 
on Earth. Reagan rejected Gorbachev’s offer to give up ‘Star Wars’ as a 
condition for both countries to eliminate all their nuclear weapons … 
Bush and Obama blocked any discussion in 2008 and 2014 on Russian and 
Chinese proposals for a space-weapons ban in the consensus-bound 
Committee on Disarmament in Geneva.”

“At this unique time in history when it is imperative that nations of 
the world join in cooperation to share resources to end the global 
plague assaulting its inhabitants and to avoid catastrophic climate 
destruction or Earth-shattering nuclear devastation,” 
<https://worldbeyondwar.org/time-to-negotiate-for-peace-in-space/> said 
Slater, “we are instead squandering our treasure and intellectual 
capacity on weapons and space warfare.”

And yet far worse is to come—unless there is a return to the vision of 
the Outer Space Treaty of 1967. The latter needs to be expanded, U.S. 
Space Force dismantled, and a full global commitment made to keep space 
for peace.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

As we go to press, /Breaking Defense/ published an article: “Pentagon 
Poised To Unveil, Demonstrate Classified Space Weapon.” This was its 
headline. Above the headline it stated: “Show Coverage: Space Symposium 
2021” 
<https://breakingdefense.com/2021/08/pentagon-posed-to-unveil-classified-space-weapon/?utm_campaign=Breaking%20News&utm_medium=email&_hsmi=151302334&_hsenc=p2ANqtz-_WjJRXNH7oSN8eQo0iMMC52dIbrytHkcSOFjM1_zECxrz5zqaTLiWTN0lmaYIYa35tfuqxon2uOPfvbhS1zFeBwuIlrg&utm_content=151302334&utm_source=hs_email>

The piece begins: “For months, top officials at the Defense Department 
have been working toward declassifying the existence of a secret space 
weapon program and providing a real-world demonstration of its 
capabilities.” 
<https://breakingdefense.com/2021/08/pentagon-posed-to-unveil-classified-space-weapon/?utm_campaign=Breaking%20News&utm_medium=email&_hsmi=151302334&_hsenc=p2ANqtz-_WjJRXNH7oSN8eQo0iMMC52dIbrytHkcSOFjM1_zECxrz5zqaTLiWTN0lmaYIYa35tfuqxon2uOPfvbhS1zFeBwuIlrg&utm_content=151302334&utm_source=hs_email> 
It continues: “The system in question long has been cloaked in the 
blackest of black secrecy veils—developed as a so-called Special Access 
Program known only to a very few, very senior government leaders.” 
<https://breakingdefense.com/2021/08/pentagon-posed-to-unveil-classified-space-weapon/?utm_campaign=Breaking%20News&utm_medium=email&_hsmi=151302334&_hsenc=p2ANqtz-_WjJRXNH7oSN8eQo0iMMC52dIbrytHkcSOFjM1_zECxrz5zqaTLiWTN0lmaYIYa35tfuqxon2uOPfvbhS1zFeBwuIlrg&utm_content=151302334&utm_source=hs_email>

The August 20th article features below its headline a large illustration 
of—as its caption reads—“Directed energy anti-satellite weapons for the 
future (Lockheed Martin)”


Directed energy anti-satellite weapons for the future. (Lockheed Martin) 
[Source: breakingdefence.com 
<https://breakingdefense.com/2021/08/pentagon-posed-to-unveil-classified-space-weapon/?utm_campaign=Breaking%20News&utm_medium=email&_hsmi=151302334&_hsenc=p2ANqtz-_WjJRXNH7oSN8eQo0iMMC52dIbrytHkcSOFjM1_zECxrz5zqaTLiWTN0lmaYIYa35tfuqxon2uOPfvbhS1zFeBwuIlrg&utm_content=151302334&utm_source=hs_email>] 


General John W. “Jay” Raymond, chief of space operations of the U.S. 
Space Force. [Source: spaceforce.mil 
<https://www.spaceforce.mil/News/Article/2057219/raymond-sworn-in-as-first-chief-of-space-operations-at-white-house-event/>]

Space Symposium 2021 was to be held in Colorado Springs, Colorado 
between August 23 and 26. A main speaker was to be General John W. “Jay” 
Raymond, chief of space operations of the U.S. Space Force.

/Breaking Defense/ describes itself as “the digital magazine on the 
strategy, politics and technology of defense,” adding: “It’s a new era 
in defense, where new technologies, new warfare domains and a rapidly 
shifting military and political landscape have profound implications for 
national security.”

Profound, indeed!

------------------------------------------------------------------------

 1.

    Paul Meyer, “Arms Control in Outer Space: A Diplomatic Alternative
    to Star Wars” in /Security in the Global Commons and Beyond/ J.
    Martin Ramírez and Bartolomé Bauzá-Abril, eds. (Basel: Springer,
    2021). ↑

 2.

    B. Spice, “Sm Looks to Nuclear Power,”/Albuquerque Journal, /January
    12, 1988, p. A1. ↑

------------------------------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------------------------------


    About the Author

Karl Grossman is an author, TV program host and full professor of 
journalism at the State University of New York/College at Old Westbury.

For 30 years, he has hosted the TV interview program Enviro Close-Up 
with Karl Grossman and is the author of six books.

Karl can be reached at: karlgrossman42 at gmail.com 
<mailto:karlgrossman42 at gmail.com>.

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