[News] Fifty one years ago today, Don Pedro Albizu Campos died in San Juan, Puerto Rico

Anti-Imperialist News news at freedomarchives.org
Thu Apr 21 11:11:30 EDT 2016


Fifty one years ago, Don Pedro Albizu Campos died in San Juan. The US 
and Gov. Luis Muñoz Marín had broken his body, but not his spirit. Half 
a century later, all of Don Pedro’s warnings have come true. Puerto Rico 
is bankrupt and the US is sending a “Financial Control Board” to control 
and exploit the entire island.

*https://www.facebook.com/WarAgainstAllPuertoRicans/posts/1705409246365431?fref=nf 
<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.com/pedro-albizu-campos/>*


  Pedro Albizu Campos


*“Real leaders must be ready to sacrifice all*

*for the freedom of their people.”*

                                     – Nelson Mandela

Pedro Albizu Campos was born poor in the /Barrio Tenerías/ section of 
Ponce, Puerto Rico. His mother Juliana died when he was four years old, 
his father disowned him, and Albizu was raised by his maternal Aunt Rosa.

He went barefoot most of his childhood, but he was a brilliant student. 
He won multiple scholarships and was the first Puerto Rican to graduate 
from Harvard College. Albizu went on to graduate from Harvard Law 
School, and returned to his hometown of Ponce, Puerto Rico – where he 
defended hundreds of poor and indigent clients and became president of 
the Nationalist Party.

<http://www.whoisalbizu.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/albizu_croped_web_photo.jpg>

In 1931, Albizu defended a Nationalist named Luis Velasquez who, during 
a political dispute, had slapped the Chief Justice of the Puerto Rico 
Supreme Court. This judge was named Emilio Del Toro.

The actor Benicio Del Toro is a member of this family: a highly 
respected family of lawyers and jurists.

The Del Toro case went to the U.S. Court of Appeals (1^st Circuit). When 
Albizu won, it became known as “/la bofetá de Velasquez/” (Velasquez’s 
slap in the face).

Albizu advocates 
<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/albizu-advocates.jpg>*Albizu 
Campos speaks to sugar cane workers*

Albizu also used his legal skills to create a series of bonds that were 
registered on Wall Street. These bonds were an investment in the 
Republic of Puerto Rico, redeemable from the island’s treasury on the 
day it became independent. The first bond offering was for $200,000 in 
increments of $10, $50 and $100 bonds.

first bond 
<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/first-bond.jpg>

The U.S. paid no attention to Albizu until 1934, when he led an 
island-wide agricultural strike that raised the sugar cane workers’ 
wages from 45 cents to $1.50 per 12-hour day.

Yabucoa, Puerto Rico. At a strike meeting 
<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2014/12/yabucoa-puerto-rico-at-a-strike-meeting.jpg>*Sugar 
cane workers on strike in Yabucoa*

Albizu spoke all over the island, reminding everyone that “according to 
the Yankees owning one person makes you a scoundrel, but owning a nation 
makes you a colonial benefactor.”

After winning the strike, Albizu became famous throughout Puerto Rico 
and the crowds around him kept growing.

Albizu Campos speaks at the University of Puerto Rico in Rio Piedras 
<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/albizu-campos-speaks-at-the-university-of-puerto-rico-in-rio-piedras.jpg>*Albizu 
Campos speaks at the University of Puerto Rico in Rio Piedras*

The U.S. responded by appointing a new governor, Gen. Blanton Winship, 
who militarized the entire Insular Police force. The officers underwent 
Tommy gun training and were outfitted with submachine guns, tear gas, 
riot gear, and high-powered rifles and carbines.

These policemen and the FBI started following Albizu Campos all over the 
island. They watched his home, intercepted his mail, interrogated his 
neighbors, and arrested members of his Nationalist Party.

Albizu even began to receive death threats. Shots were fired into his home.

Policeman with a Tommy gun, issued by Gov. Winship 
<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/policeman-with-a-tommy-gun-issued-by-gov-winship.jpg>*Policeman 
with a tommy gun, issued by Gov. Winship*

On October 24, 1935, an army of Winship’s policemen raided a student 
rally and killed four people, including the treasurer of the Nationalist 
Party – all in broad daylight, in front of witnesses.

It became known as the Rio Piedras Massacre.

*War Against All Puerto Ricans* 
<http://www.amazon.com/War-Against-All-Puerto-Ricans/dp/1568585012>

On October 29, 1935, when asked about the Rio Piedras Massacre at a 
press conference, Winship’s Chief of Police E. Francis Riggs uttered his 
famous words. Police Chief Riggs declared to the reporters that if 
Albizu Campos continued his agitation:

*“There will be war to the death against all Puerto Ricans.”*

The newspapers all reported the Police Chief’s words, the very next day. 
The entire island heard about this “*war against all Puerto Ricans*,” 
and became understandably fearful.

Then on February 23, 1936, two more Nationalists were arrested and 
dragged into a San Juan police precinct, then executed inside the precinct.

<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/7e09b-eliasbeauchampantesdesuasesinato.jpg>*Elias 
Beauchamp, a few hours before his police execution*

The entire island was outraged over this police execution, and over 
30,000 people surrounded the funeral motorcade into San Juan on February 
25, 1936.

El Imparcial6 
<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/el-imparcial6.jpg>*Funeral 
for the slain Nationalists. /El Imparcial/, Feb. 25, 1936*

The very next day, on February 26, the island newspapers showed 
full-page photos of the bloody clothes that had been recovered from the 
corpse of Elias Beauchamp.

Elias Beauchamp 
<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/elias-beauchamp.jpg>

A few days later, in March 1936, Albizu was arrested and tried for 
conspiracy to overthrow the U.S. government. On the day of the verdict 
(July 31, 1936) every room, hallway and staircase in the José Toledo 
Federal Building was jammed with U.S. soldiers.

The surrounding streets were all blockaded.

  FBI agents mingled with the crowds.

National Guardsmen roamed the halls.

In the courtroom itself, more than half the spectators were policemen 
and plainclothes detectives.

U.S. military commanders from Camp Santiago sat in the front row as the 
jury delivered its verdict: ten years imprisonment for Albizu Campos. 
But that was only the beginning. From that day in 1936, Albizu lived 
another 29 years. 25 of those 29 years were spent in prison.

He was arrested in 1936, and sent to the USP Atlanta Penitentiary in 1937.

<http://www.alcatrazhistory.com/usp-atlanta-cellblock.jpg>*USP Atlanta cell block*

He was arrested and jailed again, in 1950.

<http://luis40pr.files.wordpress.com/2014/01/wpid-screenshot_2014-01-28-18-08-31-1.png>

Arrested and jailed in 1954.

<http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/albizu-1954.jpg>

At one point Albizu told his wife, and many historians agree, that “the 
Americans knew what they were doing – they needed me off this island 
right away. Six more months in 1936, and we’d have gotten our independence.”

In addition to his 25 years’ imprisonment, during the few years that he 
was out of prison (only four years) Albizu was surrounded 24 hours a day 
by FBI agents. They interrogated anyone who visited him, spoke to him, 
or mailed him a letter.

They tapped his phone.

They developed a secret FBI file over a period of thirty years, which 
contained over 20,000 pages of surveillance information from 1936 
through1965.

They even passed a special anti-speech law just for him – a few months 
after his release from prison in December 1947.

*Law 53 – The Gag Law*

On June 10, 1948, they passed Law 53, otherwise known as /La Ley de la 
Mordaza/ (Law of the Muzzle). This law was nearly a word-for-word 
translation of Section 2 of the U.S. anti-Communist Smith Act, and it 
authorized police and FBI to stop anyone on the street and invade any 
Puerto Rican home, particularly Nationalist homes.

It was a gag law. It prohibited the singing of a patriotic tune; or to 
own or display a Puerto Rican flag anywhere, even in one’s own home, no 
matter how large or small.

Police find dangerous Puerto Rican flags 
<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/police-find-dangerous-puerto-rican-flags.jpg>*Police 
find dangerous Puerto Rican flags*

It also prohibited any speech against the U.S. government or in favor of 
Puerto Rican independence; or to print, publish, sell or exhibit any 
material about independence; or to organize any society, group or 
assembly of people on behalf of independence. Anyone found guilty of 
disobeying the law could be sentenced to ten years imprisonment, a fine 
of $10,000 dollars, or both.

Police find more dangerous Puerto Rican flags 
<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/police-find-more-dangerous-puerto-rican-flags.jpg>*Police 
find more dangerous Puerto Rican flags*

Albizu ignored the Gag Law and spoke out anyway. He travelled throughout 
the island with the FBI trailing behind him, giving pro-independence 
speeches that were broadcast by radio stations WKAQ (San Juan), WPRB 
(Ponce), WCMN (Arecibo), WSWL (Santurce), WENA (Bayamón), WVJP (Caguas), 
WECW (Mayagüez), and over a dozen others.

Albizu at Sixto Escobar Stadium 
<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/albizu-at-sixto-escobar-stadium.jpg>*Albizu 
at Sixto Escobar Stadium*

Crowds followed him all over the island.

Crowd 
<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/crowd.jpg>

They met him at the San Juan waterfront.

San Juan waterfront 
<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/san-juan-waterfront.jpg>

They packed into churches with him.

church 
<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/church.jpg>

They marched into municipal theatres, and filled the streets of Ponce 
and Arecibo.

municipal theatres 
<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/municipal-theatres.jpg>

The FBI followed him everywhere, and an agent named Jack West filmed all 
his public speeches. Everything went into secret FBI files, known as 
“/carpetas/.”

FBI files, known as carpetas 
<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/fbi-files-known-as-carpetas.jpg>

It was a tremendous uphill battle for Albizu. The Governor of Puerto 
Rico, Luis Muñoz-Marín, accused him of being a communist, a fascist, and 
a terrorist. The U.S. military now controlled 13% of Puerto Rico’s land.

It was using the islands of Vieques and Culebras for target practice, 
exploding 5 million pounds of ordnance per year.

Roosevelt Roads Naval Air Base covered 32,000 acres and three harbors, 
and was the largest naval facility in the world. Camp Santiago occupied 
12,789 acres in the town of Salinas. Ramey Air Base covered 3,796 acres 
in Aguadilla. Fort Buchanan had 4,500 acres in metropolitan San Juan 
with its own pier facilities, ammunition storage areas, and an extensive 
railroad network into San Juan Bay.

<http://www.virtualboricua.org/images/Illustrations/PRmilitarymap.gif>*Map 
of U.S. military Installations in Puerto Rico (disclosed locations) 
1950-1960*

Every fourth of July a military brass band and three infantry 
battalions, a tank company, a bombardment squadron, three aerial fighter 
squadrons, the 504th Field Artillery Battalion, the 18th Mechanized 
Cavalry Squadron and 4,000 soldiers – the entire 65^th Infantry Regiment 
– would march down /Calle Fortaleza/ (just three blocks from Albizu’s 
house) and remind everyone who was boss.

US military celebrate their annual July 4th parade in Old San Juan 
<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/us-military-celebrate-their-annual-july-4th-parade-in-old-san-juan.jpg>*US 
military celebrate their annual July 4^th parade in Old San Juan*

Albizu realized he could never “defeat” the U.S. in the usual military 
sense. The only hope would be to start a revolution, much like the 
Easter Rising of 1916 in Ireland, which would capture the world’s 
attention and persuade the United Nations that Puerto Rico was, in fact, 
a colony of the United States – and as the “leader of the free world,” 
the U.S. should not have any colonies.

*The October 1950 Revolution*

On the weekend of October 30, 1950, the Nationalist Party waged a 
revolution against the United States. Gunfights roared in eight towns. 
Police stations were burned down. The Republic of Puerto Rico was 
declared in the town of Jayuya. Assassination attempts were made against 
Pres. Harry Truman and Governor Luis Muñoz-Marín.

In order to suppress this revolt the U.S. bombed two towns, mobilized 
5,000 National Guardsmen, killed dozens of Nationalists, and arrested 
3,000 Puerto Ricans. Albizu Campos was arrested and jailed in La Princesa.

<http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/puertorico/pr-1950-nationalist-2.jpg>*Mass 
arrests in San Juan*

*Prison Torture*

A growing body of evidence indicates that, for a number of years in 
prison, Albizu Campos was subjected to lethal doses of radiation which 
caused burns and welts all over his body, and caused a cerebral 
thrombosis in 1957.

Albizu covered his head and body with wet towels in order to shield 
himself from this radiation. The prison guards ridiculed him and called 
him /El Rey de la Toallas /– the King of the Towels. The U.S. government 
declared hm insane, and sent a caravan of psyciatrists to prove it. But 
the physical evidence of Albizu’s decay, and the testimony of other 
prisoners that /they/ had also been irradiated, became difficult to ignore.

bg-34 
<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/jailalbizu.jpg>*Albizu 
shows his burns and lesions to reporters*

Dr. Orlando Damuy, a world-renowned radiologist and president of the 
Cuban Cancer Association, conclusively found that Albizu has been 
subjected to TBI (Total Body Irradiation) in prison. In Puerto Rico (/El 
Imparcial/), Argentina (/Verdad/), Mexico (/Correo Inter-Americano/), 
Cuba (/Bohema/; /Tiempo en Cuba/), the press called for an investigation 
into the “atomic lynching” of Albizu Campos.

On May 28, 1951, the Cuban House of Representatives formally requested 
that Albizu be trasferred to Cuba, in order to attend to his 
radiological cure.

<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/jailalbizu.jpg>*Albizu 
with burnt skin, all over his body*

On December 19, 1952, Dr Frederic Joiliet-Curie, winner of the Nobel 
Prize for his discovery of “artificial radioactivity,” filed a petition 
with the United Nations which denounced the torture of Albizu Campos in 
La Princesa and demanded his extradition to a territory outside of the U.S.

In 1953 the International Writers Congress of Jose Martí sent a letter 
to President Eisenhower on behalf of Albizu. It was signed by 28 
prominent writers, journalists and intellectuals from 11 countries.

All of these were ignored, until Albzu suffered a cerebral thrombosis in 
La Princesa, which left paralyzed the right side of his body for the 
rest of his life, and rendered him mute.

Albizu Campos was not longer able to speak. They had silenced him forever.

<http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/513PJ-v34ZL.jpg>

Eventually, the U.S. radiation experiments became common knowledge. A 
woman named Eileen Welsome wrote a book titled the /Plutonium Files/, a 
newspaper series called /The Plutonium Experiment/, and she received the 
Pulitzer Prize for it. The U.S. Dept. of Energy has admitted to 
conducting these radiation experiments, and has paid monetary 
compensation to many of the grieving families.

After many years, the demand continues for a complete investigation of 
the radiation torture of Albizu Campos.

radiation torture of Albizu Campos 
<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/radiation-torture-of-albizu-campos3.jpg>

*Funeral Rites and Burial*

Shortly before Albizu Campos’ death, Ernesto “Che” Guevara stood before 
the United Nations General Assembly and gave this speech on his behalf:

“Albizu Campos is a symbol of the as yet unfree but indomitable Latin 
America. Years and years of prison, almost unbearable pressures in jail, 
mental torture, solitude, total isolation from his people and his 
family, the insolence of the conqueror and its lackeys in the land of 
his birth – nothing broke his will.” (Dec. 11, 1964)

Albizu Campos died on April 21, 1965. His family received hundreds 
of telegrams, cables and letters from around the world. The Senate and 
House of Representatives of Puerto Rico commemorated him in both 
chambers, and the Parliament of Venezuela observed five minutes of 
silence in his memory.

The newspaper /El Imparcial/ ran an immediate special edition, with 
Albizu on the front cover.

Muere-Albizu-Campos-El-Impacial 
<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/muere-albizu-campos-el-impacial.jpg>

Before the burial artists made an alginate mold of Albizu’s face, for 
the sculptures and statues that would be built in his honor.

<http://recend.apextech.netdna-cdn.com/images/2011/09/09/1408171_8.jpg>

Government officials, journalists and friends from every country in 
Latin  America arrived to attend the final services. Before Albizu’s 
burial on April 25, over 100,000 people passed by his funeral casket.

Albizu’s burial on April 25 
<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/albizu_s-burial-on-april-25.jpg>

An honor guard accompanied the funeral casket from the Ateneo 
Puertorriqueño. The streets of San Juan were lined with 75,000 black 
ribbons that had been tied to trees, cars, lamp posts, benches and 
street signs, all the way to the cemetery.

<http://recend.apextech.netdna-cdn.com/images/2011/09/09/1408171_9.jpg>*Honor 
guard for Albizu Campos in San Juan, Puerto Rico*

The streets were also filled with mourners, paying their last respects 
to a fallen hero.

<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/sepelio.jpg>

His burial was officiated by Bishop Antulio Parilla and two priests, 
each representing the three largest cathedrals in Puerto Rico.

Funeral Ceremonies Pedro Albizu Campos 
<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/funeral-ceremonies-pedro-albizu-campos.jpg>*Funeral 
ceremonies for Pedro Albizu Campos*

On the evening of April 25, 1965, in the Santa María Magdalena de 
Pazzis Cemetery in Old San Juan, Pedro Albizu Campos was finally laid to 
rest.

Remembrance and Legacy

*Remembrance and Legacy*

Over the fifty years following his death, parks and plazas have been 
named after Albizu Campos, all throughout Puerto Rico. Nearly every 
municipality has a /Calle Pedro Albizu Campos/ (Pedro Albizu Campos 
Street).  Five public schools were named after him.

In his hometown of Ponce, the /Parque Pedro Albizu Campos/ (Pedro Albizu 
Campos Park) contains a life-size statue of him, and annual memorial 
services are held there on his birthday. In the town of Salinas there is 
a /Plaza Monumento Don //Pedro Albizu Campos/ – a plaza and a nine-foot 
statue dedicated to his memory.

Schools and community centers were also named after Albizu Campos in New 
York City and Chicago.

Annual parades are held in his honor, both in Puerto Rico and the 
mainland United States.

Annual parades are held in his honor, both in Puerto Rico and the 
mainland United States 
<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/annual-parades-are-held-in-his-honor-both-in-puerto-rico-and-the-mainland-united-states1.jpg>

Albizu Campos will always be remembered as one of the great patriots in 
Puerto Rican history – who bravely and eloquently reminded the United 
States of their own founding principles, and spent 25 years in jail for 
doing so.

Throughout his entire life, he fought for the improvement of labor 
conditions for workers and /jíbaros/ (country people), for a more 
accurate assessment of the colonial relationship between Puerto Rico and 
the United States, and an awareness by the political establishment in 
Washington, D.C. of this colonial relationship. His legacy is that of a 
lifetime of sacrifice – for the building of a Puerto Rican nation.

It is a legacy of resistance to colonial rule.

Pedro Albizu Campos 
<https://waragainstallpuertoricans.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/pedro-albizu-campos.jpg>

*Selected Footnotes*

The following notes pertain to the Total Body Irradiation (TBI) 
procedure which the U.S. government inflicted on Pedro Albizu Campos, 
while imprisoned in La Princesa. It is a controversial area which 
deserves the fullest documentation and inquiry.

1. Subcommittee on Energy Conservation and Power, U.S. House of 
Representatives, “American Nuclear Guinea Pigs: Three Decades of 
Radiation Experiments on U.S. Citizens,” 99th Congress, 2nd Session, 
November 1986, pp. 1-17. 2. Philip J. Hilts, “U.S. to Settle for $4.8 
Million in Suits on Radiation Testing,” New York Times, November 20, 
1996. 3. “Count of Subjects in Radiation Experiments Is Raised to 
16,000,” New York Times, August 20, 1995. 4. Keith Schneider, “Secret 
Nuclear Research on People Comes to Light,” New York Times, December 17, 
1993. 5. Matthew L. Wald, “Rule Adopted to Prohibit Secret Tests on 
Humans,” New York Times, March 29, 1997. 6. Eileen Welsome, The 
Plutonium Files (New York: Random House, 1999). 7. Juan Gonzalez, “A 
Lonely Voice Finally Heard,” New York Daily News, January 12, 1994. 8. 
Pedro Aponte Vásquez, ¡Yo Acuso! Y lo que Pasó Despues (Bayamón, PR: 
Movimiento Ecuménico Nacional de P.R., Inc., 1985) 9. Howard L. 
Rosenberg, Atomic Soldiers: American Victims of Nuclear Experiments 
(Boston: Beacon Press, 1980).

*A much more extensive discussion, footnotes, citations, and 
bibliography all appear in the book /War Against All Puerto Ricans/ 
<http://www.amazon.com/War-Against-All-Puerto-Ricans/dp/1568585012>…*

-- Freedom Archives 522 Valencia Street San Francisco, CA 94110 415 
863.9977 www.freedomarchives.org
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