[News] US Leaders Aid and Abet Israeli War Crimes, Genocide & Crimes against Humanity

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Fri Aug 8 13:58:13 EDT 2014


    US Leaders Aid and Abet Israeli War Crimes, Genocide & Crimes
    against Humanity

Friday 8 August 2014 at 8:12 AM ET edited by Alex Ferraro 
<http://jurist.org/jurist_search.php?q=Alex%20Ferraro>
*http://jurist.org/forum/2014/08/marjorie-cohn-israel-crimes.php*

JURIST Contributing Editor Marjorie Cohn of the Thomas Jefferson School 
of Law discusses the ongoing conflict in Gaza ...

*B*y sending vast amounts of military aid to Israel, members of the US 
Congress, President George W. Bush, President Barack Obama and Defense 
Secretary Chuck Hagel have aided and abetted the commission of war 
crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity by Israeli officials and 
commanders in Gaza. An individual can be convicted of a war crime, 
genocide or a crime against humanity 
<http://www.icc-cpi.int/nr/rdonlyres/ea9aeff7-5752-4f84-be94-0a655eb30e16/0/rome_statute_english.pdf> 
[PDF] in the ICC if he or she "aids, abets or otherwise assists" in the 
commission or attempted commission of the crime, "including providing 
the means for its commission."

There is growing evidence that Israeli leaders and commanders have 
committed the following war crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity 
as defined in the Rome Statute for the ICC. US military aid has aided, 
abetted and assisted the commission of these crimes by providing Israel 
with the military means to commit them.

During Operation Protective Edge, Israeli forces again used the Dahiye 
Doctrine, which, according to the UN Human Rights Council [Goldstone] 
Report 
<http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/docs/12session/A-HRC-12-48.pdf> 
[PDF], involves "the application of disproportionate force and causing 
of great damage and destruction to civilian property and infrastructure, 
and suffering to civilian populations."

A summary of Israeli leaders' extensive crimes is presented below.

*US military aid to Israel*

According to the Congressional Research Service, in 2007, the Bush 
Administration agreed to provide Israel with $30 billion 
<http://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33222.pdf> [PDF] in military 
assistance from 2009 to 2018, provided in annual increments of $3.1 
billion. During his March 2013 visit to Israel, Obama pledged 
<http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/03/21/remarks-president-barack-obama-people-israel> 
that the US would continue to provide Israel with multi-year commitments 
of military aid subject to the approval of Congress.

Since 2012, the US has sent 
<http://www.amnesty.org/en/for-media/press-releases/usa-stop-arms-transfers-israel-amid-growing-evidence-war-crimes-gaza-2014-0> 
$276 million worth of weapons and munitions to Israel, not including 
exports of military transport equipment and high technologies. From 
January to May 2014, the US transferred to Israel almost $27 million for 
rocket launchers, $9.3 million worth of parts of guided missiles and 
nearly $762,000 for bombs, grenades and munitions of war.

On July 20, 2014, Israel requested 
<http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/politics/2014/07/u-s-has-sold-ammunition-to-israel-since-start-of-gaza-conflict/> 
additional ammunition, including 140mm tank rounds and 40mm illumination 
grenades, and the Defense Department approved the sale three days later. 
It came from a $1 billion stockpile of ammunition the US military stores 
in Israel for that country's use; it is called War Reserve Stockpile 
Ammunition-Israel. In early August 2014, both houses of Congress 
overwhelmingly passed 
<http://www.cbsnews.com/news/congress-backs-225m-bill-to-replenish-israels-iron-dome-missile-defense/>, 
and Obama signed, an appropriation of $225 billion for Israel's Iron 
Dome missile defense system, which has also been used in Gaza. The 
Senate vote was unanimous. With no debate, the House of Representatives 
voted 395 to 8 to approve the deal.

Here is a summary of the crimes, as defined in the Rome Statute, Israeli 
leaders have committed and US leaders have aided and abetted:

*War crimes*

(1) *Willful killing*: Israeli forces have killed 
<http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2014/08/07/gaza-children/13673931/]> 
nearly 2,000 Palestinians (more than 400 children 
<http://www.democracynow.org/2014/7/21/palestinian_human_rights_lawyer_raji_sourani> 
and over 80% civilians). Israel used 155-millimeter artillery, which, 
according to 
<http://www.truth-out.org/news/item/25442-as-palestinians-go-to-icc-human-rights-watch-alleges-israeli-war-crimes-for-shooting-fleeing-gazans> 
Human Rights Watch, is "utterly inappropriate in a densely populated 
area, because this kind of artillery is considered accurate if it lands 
anyplace within a 50-meter radius."

(2) *Willfully causing great suffering or serious injury to body or 
health*: Nearly 10,000 people 
<http://www.haaretz.com/news/diplomacy-defense/.premium-1.608892>, 2,500 
of them children, have been wounded. Naban Abu Shaar told 
<http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/08/01/who-is-behind-gaza-s-mass-execution.html> 
the Daily Beast that the dead bodies from what appeared to be a "mass 
execution" in Khuza'a looked like they were "melted" and were piled on 
top of each other; assault rifle bullet casings found in the house were 
marked "IMI" (Israel Military Industries). UNICEF said 
<http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/06/world/middleeast/un-reports-dire-impact-on-children-in-gaza-strip.html?_r=0> 
the Israeli offensive has had a "catastrophic and tragic impact" on 
children in Gaza; about 373,000 children have had traumatic experiences 
and need psychological help. The UN Relief and Works Agency for 
Palestine Refugees (UNRWA) said 
<http://www.democracynow.org/2014/8/4/disgraceful_criminal_act_israel_condemned_as>: 
"There's a public health catastrophe going on. You know, most of the 
medical facilities in Gaza are non-operational."

(3) *Unlawful and wanton, extensive destruction and appropriation of 
property not justified by military necessity*: Tens of thousands of 
Palestinians have lost their homes 
<http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/08/03/world/middleeast/assessing-the-damage-and-destruction-in-gaza.html>. 
More than 1,300 buildings were destroyed and 752 were severely damaged. 
Damage to sewer and water infrastructure has affected 
<http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/08/04/us-mideast-gaza-reconstruction-idUSKBN0G40PS20140804> 
two-thirds of Gazans. On July 20, Israeli forces virtually flattened the 
small town of Khuza'a; one man counted 
<http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/gaza/11012640/Gaza-conflict-360-degree-panorama-of-flattened-town-of-Khuzaa-Gaza.html> 
360 shell attacks in one hour. Reconstruction of Gaza is estimated to 
cost 
<http://www.voanews.com/content/palestinian-official-at-least-6-billion-to-rebuild-gaza/1970960.html> 
$6 billion. Israel shrunk 
<http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/aug/05/gaza-buffer-zone-dennis-kucinich> 
Gaza's habitable land mass by 44 percent, establishing a 3 km "no-go" 
zone for Palestinians; 147 square miles of land will be compressed into 
82 square miles. Oxfam described 
<http://www.oxfam.org/en/pressroom/pressrelease/2014-08-01/gaza-crisis-spiralling-out-control> 
the level of destruction as "outrageous ... much worse than anything we 
have seen in previous [Israeli] military operations."

(4) *Willfully depriving a prisoner of war or a civilian the rights of 
fair and regular trial*: Nearly 2,000 Palestinians were arrested by 
Israeli forces during July 2014, according 
<http://samidoun.ca/2014/08/july-2014-over-1930-palestinians-arrested-by-occupation-forces/> 
to the Palestinian Prisoners Center for Studies. Prisoners include 15 
members of the Palestinian Legislative Council, about 240 children, 
dozens of women, journalists, activists, academics and 62 former 
prisoners previously released in a prisoner exchange. Israeli forces 
executed many prisoners after arrest, either by directly firing on them, 
refusing to allow treatment or allowing them to bleed to death. More 
than 445 prisoners are being held without charge or trial under 
administrative detention.

(5) *Intentionally directing attacks against the civilian population, 
civilian objects, or humanitarian vehicles, installations and 
personnel*: "The civilian population in the Gaza Strip is under direct 
attack," reads 
<http://www.alternativenews.org/english/index.php/features/human-rights/8364-int-legal-experts-end-collective-punishment-in-gaza> 
a joint declaration of over 150 international law experts. Israeli 
forces violated the principle of "distinction," which forbids deliberate 
attacks on civilians or civilian objects. Israeli forces bombed 142 
schools (89 run by the UN), including six UN schools in which civilians 
were taking refuge. Israeli forces shot and killed fleeing civilians 
(warnings, which must effectively give civilians time to flee before 
bombing, do not relieve Israel from its legal obligations not to target 
civilians). Israeli forces repeatedly bombed Gaza's only power plant and 
other infrastructure, which are "beyond repair." Israeli forces bombed 
<http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=48395#.U-RBUIBdVBM> 
one-third of Gaza's hospitals, 14 primary healthcare clinics and 29 
ambulances. At least five medical staff were killed and tens of others 
were injured.

(6) *Intentionally launching attacks with knowledge they will cause 
incidental loss of life or injury to civilians or damage to civilian 
objects or long-term severe damage to the natural environment, if they 
are clearly excessive in relation to the anticipated military 
advantage*: The principle of "proportionality" forbids disproportionate 
and excessive civilian casualties compared to the claimed military 
advantage gained in the attack. The Dahiye Doctrine directly violates 
<http://www.irishtimes.com/news/world/middle-east/it-is-a-war-crime-to-target-densely-packed-gaza-homes-1.1874825> 
this principle. Responding to Hamas' rockets with 155-millimeter 
artillery is disproportionate 
<http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/04/world/middleeast/international-scrutiny-after-israeli-barrage-strike-in-jabaliya-where-united-nations-school-shelters-palestinians-in-gaza.html>. 
Although nearly 2,000 Palestinians (over 80 percent civilians) have been 
killed 
<http://my.firedoglake.com/fairleft/2014/08/04/1843-palestinians-67-israelis-killed-in-gaza-conflict-boycott-israel-bds-now-more-than-ever/>, 
67 Israelis (all but three of them soldiers) have been killed. The 
coordinates of all UN facilities were repeatedly communicated 
<http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2014/230160.htm> to the Israeli 
forces; they nevertheless bombed 
<http://www.globalresearch.ca/israel-bombs-yet-another-united-nations-school-killing-women-and-children/5394068> 
them multiple times. Civilians were attacked 
<http://www.alternet.org/media/american-media-finally-waking-truth-about-israels-assault-gaza> 
in Shuja'iyyah market.

(7) *Attacking or bombarding undefended towns, villages, dwellings or 
buildings, or intentionally attacking religious, educational and medical 
buildings, which are not military objectives*: On July 20, Israeli 
forces virtually flattened the small town of Khuza'a; one man counted 
<http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/gaza/11012640/Gaza-conflict-360-degree-panorama-of-flattened-town-of-Khuzaa-Gaza.html> 
360 shell attacks in one hour. Israeli forces bombed 
<http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/06/world/middleeast/un-reports-dire-impact-on-children-in-gaza-strip.html> 
142 schools (89 run by the UN), one-third of Gaza's hospitals, 14 
primary healthcare clinics, and 29 ambulances 
<http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=48395#.U-RFC4BdVBM>. 
Israeli shelling completely destroyed 
<http://www.middleeastmonitor.com/news/middle-east/13229-israel-bombed-161-mosques-in-gaza> 
41 mosques and partially destroyed 120 mosques.

*Genocide*

(a) *With the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, 
ethnical, racial or religious group:* Palestinians, including primarily 
civilians, and Palestinian infrastructure necessary to sustain life were 
deliberately targeted by Israeli forces.

(b) *The commission of any of the following acts*

(i) *killing members of the group*: Israeli forces killed 
<http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/israeli-airstrike-kills-militant-leader-before-unilateral-cease-fire/2014/08/04/7979b66d-e990-4009-8735-19c24e9538c0_story.html>nearly 
2,000 Palestinians.
(ii) *causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group*: 
Israeli forces wounded 
<http://www.haaretz.com/news/diplomacy-defense/.premium-1.608892> 10,000 
Palestinians.
(iii) *deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life 
calculated to bring about its destruction in whole or in part*: Israeli 
forces devastated Gaza's infrastructure, knocking out Gaza's only power 
plant, and destroying homes, schools, buildings, mosques and hospitals.

*Crimes against humanity*

(A) *The commission of murder as part of a widespread or systematic 
attack against any civilian population*: Israeli forces relentlessly 
bombed 
<http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/specialseries/2014/08/gaza-under-fire-one-month-20148720459697565.html> 
Gaza for one month, killing nearly 2,000 Palestinians 
<http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/israeli-airstrike-kills-militant-leader-before-unilateral-cease-fire/2014/08/04/7979b66d-e990-4009-8735-19c24e9538c0_story.html>, 
more than 80 percent of whom were civilians. Israeli forces 
intentionally destroyed Gaza's infrastructure, knocking out 
<http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/middle-east-unrest/israel-strikes-fuel-tanks-gazas-only-power-plant-n167291> 
Gaza's only power plant, and destroying 
<http://electronicintifada.net/blogs/rania-khalek/israel-deliberately-targeting-civilians-gaza> 
homes, schools, buildings, mosques and hospitals.

(B) *Persecution against a group or collectivity based on its political, 
racial, national, ethnic or religious character, as part of a widespread 
or systematic attack against any civilian population*: Israeli forces 
killed, wounded, summarily executed, and administratively detained 
Palestinians, Hamas forces and civilians alike. Israel forces 
intentionally destroyed the infrastructure of Gaza, populated by 
Palestinians. UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon said 
<http://abcnews.go.com/US/wireStory/jordan-circulates-revised-resolution-gaza-24857584>: 
"the massive death and destruction in Gaza have shocked and shamed the 
world." He added the repeated bombing of UN shelters facilities in Gaza 
was "outrageous, unacceptable and unjustifiable."

(C) *The crime of apartheid (inhumane acts committed in the context of 
an institutional regime of systematic oppression and domination by one 
racial group over another racial group, with the intent to maintain that 
regime)*: Ali Hayek, head of Gaza's federation of industries 
representing 3,900 businesses that employ 35,000 people, said 
<http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/07/world/middleeast/after-conflict-gaza-industry-lies-in-ashes.html?_r=0>: 
"After 30 days of war, the economic situation has become, like, dead. It 
seems the occupation intentionally destroyed these vital factories that 
constitute the backbone of the society." Israel maintains an illegal 
barrier wall that encroaches on Palestinian territory and builds illegal 
Jewish settlements on Palestinian lands. Israel keeps Gazans caged in 
what many call "the world's largest open air prison." Israel controls 
all ingress and egress to Gaza, limits Gazans' access to medicine, 
subjects Palestinians to arbitrary arrest, expropriates their property, 
maintains separate areas and roads, segregated housing, different legal 
and educational systems for Palestinians and Jews and prevents mixed 
marriages. Only Jews, not Palestinians, have the right to return to 
Israel-Palestine.

*Collective punishment *

Although the Rome Statute does not include the crime of collective 
punishment, it is considered a grave breach of the Fourth Geneva 
Convention <http://www.icrc.org/ihl/INTRO/380>, which constitutes a war 
crime. Collective punishment means punishing a civilian for an offense 
he or she has not personally committed; it forbids reprisals against 
civilians and their property (civilian objects).

Ostensibly to rout out Hamas fighters, Israel has wreaked 
<http://electronicintifada.net/blogs/rania-khalek/israel-deliberately-targeting-civilians-gaza> 
unprecedented devastation on the people of Gaza, killing nearly 2,000 
people (more than 80 percent of them civilians) and destroying much of 
the infrastructure of Gaza. This constitutes collective punishment.

On August 5, 2014, veteran Israeli military advisor Giora Eiland 
advocated collective punishment of Gaza's civilian population, saying 
<https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/news/middle-east/13255-israel-uses-media-incitement-to-justify-collective-slaughter-of-palestinians-in-gaza>: 
"In order to guarantee our interests versus the other side's demands, we 
must avoid the artificial, wrong and dangerous distinction between the 
Hamas people, who are 'the bad guys,' and Gaza's residents, which are 
allegedly 'the good guys.'" That is precisely the strategy Israel has 
employed during Operation Protective Edge.

Israel's occupation of Palestinian lands also constitutes collective 
punishment. Israel maintains effective control over Gaza's land, 
airspace, seaport, electricity, water, telecommunications and population 
registry. Israel deprives Gazans of food, medicine, fuel and basic 
services.

*Prospects for criminal accountability*

Both Israel and the US have refused to ratify the Rome Statute. But if 
Palestine were a party to the statute, the ICC could exercise 
jurisdiction over crimes committed by Israelis and Americans in 
Palestinian territory. The ICC could also take jurisdiction if the UN 
Security Council refers the matter to the ICC, or if the ICC prosecutor 
initiates an investigation of the crime. The US would veto any Security 
Council referral to the ICC. And the ICC prosecutor has not initiated an 
investigation. So the question is whether Palestine can ratify the 
statute, thereby becoming a party to the ICC.

In 2009, the Palestinian National Authority filed a declaration 
<http://iccforum.com/media/background/gaza/2009-01-21_Palestinian_National_Authority_Declaration.pdf> 
[PDF] with the ICC accepting the court's jurisdiction. In 2012, the UN 
General Assembly overwhelmingly recognized 
<http://jurist.org/paperchase/2012/12/israel-rejects-palestinian-authority-statehood-despite-un-resolution.php> 
Palestine as a non-member observer state. During the present war, the 
Palestinian minister of justice and the deputy minister of justice both 
submitted documents to the ICC indicating that the 2009 declaration is 
still valid. On August 5, 2014, the Palestinian minister of foreign 
affairs met with officials from the ICC and inquired about the 
procedures for Palestine to become a party to the statute.

On July 25, 2014, a French lawyer filed 
<http://www.france24.com/en/20140725-israel-icc-war-crimes-gaza-complaint-filed/> 
a complaint with the ICC on behalf of the Palestinian justice minister. 
Citing Israel's military occupation of Palestinian territories, Israel's 
blockade of the Gaza Strip and the ongoing military operations there, 
the complaint alleges that Israel committed war crimes and other crimes. 
The Palestinian government has not formally commented on this complaint.

On July 23, 2014, the UN Human Rights Council established 
<http://www.latimes.com/opinion/op-ed/la-oe-wallance-gaza-unfair-un-resolution--20140729-story.html> 
a commission of inquiry into Israeli violations of international human 
rights and international humanitarian law. The resolution also called on 
parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention to convene and respond to the 
alleged violations. That convention requires parties to prosecute 
violators. Countries can bring foreign nationals to justice for war 
crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity under the well-established 
doctrine of universal jurisdiction. Genocide charges could also be 
brought under the Genocide Convention, to which both Israel and the 
United States are parties. That convention also punishes complicity in 
genocide; US leaders' provision of military aid would constitute complicity.

Although the Israeli and US governments continue to maintain that Israel 
has only acted in self-defense against Hamas' terrorism, the weight of 
world opinion points in the opposite direction. There is overwhelming 
opposition to Israeli aggression in Gaza and calls for justice and 
accountability.

Both Israeli and US leaders must be criminally prosecuted for committing 
and aiding and abetting these crimes.


/Marjorie Cohn is a professor at Thomas Jefferson School of Law, deputy 
secretary general of the International Association of Democratic 
Lawyers, and a former president of the National Lawyers Guild. Her next 
book, "Drones and Targeted Killing: Legal, Moral, and Geopolitical 
Issues," will be published in September./

*Suggested Citation: *Marjorie Cohn, /US Leaders Aid and Abet Israeli 
War Crimes, Genocide & Crimes against Humanity/, JURIST - Forum, August 
8, 2014, http://jurist.org/forum/2014/08/marjorie-cohn-israel-crimes.php.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
This article was prepared for publication by Alex Ferraro 
<http://jurist.org/jurist_search.php?q=Alex+Ferrarot>, JURIST's Managing 
Editor. Please direct any questions or comments to him at 
academiccommentary at jurist.org <mailto:academiccommentary at jurist.org>
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